Tuesday, 7 February 2012

RS Agarwal Apti


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Basic concepts.doc
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Basic concepts, definitions and identities
Number System
Test of divisibility:
1. A number is divisible by ‘2’ if it ends in zero or in a digit which is a multiple of
‘2’i.e. 2,4, 6, 8.
2. A number is divisible by ‘3’, if the sum of the digits is divisible by ‘3’.
3. A number is divisible by ‘4’ if the number formed by the last two digits, i.e. tens
and units are divisible by 4.
4. A number is divisible by ‘5’ if it ends in zero or 5
5. A number is divisible by ‘6’ if it divisible by ‘2’ as well as by ‘3’.
6. A number is divisible by ‘8’ if the number formed by the last three digits, i.e,
hundreds tens and units is divisible by ‘8’.
7. A number is divisible by ‘9’ if the sum of its digit is divisible by ‘9’
8. A number is divisible by ‘10’ if it ends in zero.
9. A number is divisible by ‘11’ if the difference between the sums of the digits in
the even and odd places is zero or a multiple of ‘11’.
LCM:
LCM of a given set of numbers is the least number which is exactly divisible
by every number of the given set.
HCF:
HCF of a given set of numbers is the highest number which divides exactly
every number of the given set.
LCM, HCF:
1. Product of two numbers = HCF × LCM
2. HCF of fractions =
LCM of denominators
HCF of numerators
3. LCM of fractions =
HCF of denominators
LCM of numerators
4. One number =
2nd number
LCM × HCF
5. LCM of two numbers=
HCF
Product of the numbers
6.
LCM
Product of the numbers
HCF =
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Examples to Follow:
1. The square of an odd number is always odd.
2. A number is said to be a prime number if it is divisible only by itself and unity.
Ex. 1, 2, 3, 5,7,11,13 etc.
3. The sum of two odd number is always even.
4. The difference of two odd numbers is always even.
5. The sum or difference of two even numbers is always even.
6. The product of two odd numbers is always odd.
7. The product of two even numbers is always even.
Problems:
1. If a number when divided by 296 gives a remainder 75, find the remainder when
37 divides the same number.
Method:
Let the number be ‘x’, say
?x = 296k + 75, where ‘k’ is quotient when ‘x’ is divided by ‘296’
= 37 × 8k + 37 × 2 + 1
= 37(8k + 2) + 1
Hence, the remainder is ‘1’ when the number ‘x’ is divided by 37.
2. If 232+1 is divisible by 641, find another number which is also divisible by ‘641’.
Method:
Consider 296+1 = (232)3 + 13
= (232 +1)(264-232 +1)
From the above equation, we find that 296+1 is also exactly divisible by 641,
since it is already given that 232+1 is exactly divisible by ‘641’.
3. If m and n are two whole numbers and if mn = 25. Find nm, given that n ? 1
Method:
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mn = 25 = 52
?m = 5, n = 2
?nm = 25 = 32
4. Find the number of prime factors of 610 × 717 × 5527
610 × 717 × 5527 = 210×310×717×527×1127
?The number of prime factors = the sum of all the indices viz., 10 + 10 + 17 +
27 + 27 = 91
5. A number when successively divided by 9, 11 and 13 leaves remainders 8, 9 and
8 respectively.
Method:
The least number that satisfies the condition= 8 + (9×9) + (8×9×11) = 8 + 81 +
792 = 881
6. A number when divided by 19, gives the quotient 19 and remainder 9. Find the
number.
Let the number be ‘x’ say.
x = 19 × 19 + 9
= 361 + 9 = 370
7. Four prime numbers are given in ascending order of their magnitudes, the
product of the first three is 385 and that of the last three is 1001. Find the
largest of the given prime numbers.
The product of the first three prime numbers = 385
The product of the last three prime numbers = 1001
In the above products, the second and the third prime numbers occur in
common. ? The product of the second and third prime numbers = HCF of the
given products.
HCF of 385 and 1001 = 77
?Largest of the given primes =
77
1001
= 13
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Square root, Cube root, Surds and Indices
Characteristics of square numbers
1. A square cannot end with an odd number of zeros
2. A square cannot end with an odd number 2, 3, 7 or 8
3. The square of an odd number is odd
4. The square of an even number is even.
5. Every square number is a multiple of 3 or exceeds a multiple of 3 by unity.
Ex.
4 × 4 = 16 = 5 × 3 + 1
5 × 5 = 25 = 8 × 3 + 1
7 × 7 = 49 = 16 × 3 + 1
6. Every square number is a multiple of 4 or exceeds a multiple of 4 by unity.
Ex.
5 × 5 = 25 = 6 × 4 + 1
7 × 7 = 49 = 12 × 4 + 1
7. If a square numbers ends in ‘9’, the preceding digit is even.
Ex.
7 × 7 = 49 ‘4’ is the preceding even numbers
27 × 27 = 729 ‘2’ is the preceding even numbers.
Characteristics of square roots of numbers
1. If a square number ends in ‘9’, its square root is a number ending in’3’ or ‘7’.
2. If a square number ends in ‘1’, its square root is a number ending in’1’ or ‘9’.
3. If a square number ends in ‘5’, its square root is a number ending in’5’
4. If a square number ends in ‘4’, its square root is a number ending in’2’ or ‘8’.
5. If a square number ends in ‘6’, its square root is a number ending in’4’ or ‘6’.
6. If a square number ends in ‘0’, its square root is a number ending in ‘0’.
Ex.
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(i)
1369 37 etc
1089 33
729 27
529 23
=
=
=
=
(ii)
361 19
961 31
81 9
121 11
=
=
=
=
(iii)
2025 45 & so on
1225 35
625 25
=
=
=
(iv)
784 28 & so on
1024 32
64 8
484 22
=
=
=
=
(v)
676 & so on
576
256
196
26
24
16
14
=
=
=
=
(vi)
10000 & so on
400
100
100
20
10
=
=
=
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THEORY OF INDICES
1. am × an = am + n
2. (am)n = amn
3. m n
n
m
a
a
a - =
4. (ab)m = ambm
5. a0 = 1
6. ap/q= qth root of ap = q ap
7. a1 p = pth root of a
8.
m
m m m
c
a b
c
ab
= ??
?
??
?
9. a8 = 8
10. a-8 = 0
1.Find the square root of 6561 (Factor method)
3
9
27
81
243
729
2187
6561
3
3
3 3 3 3
3
6561 = (3×3)×(3×3)×(3×3)×(3×3)
=(9×9)×(9×9)
= 81×81
6561 = 81
2. Find the least number with which you multiply 882, so that the product may be
a perfect square.
First find the factors of 882.
882 = 2 × 3 × 3 × 7 × 7
Now, 882 has factors as shown above, ‘3’ repeated twice, ‘7’ repeated twice
and ‘2’ only once. So when one more factor ‘2’ is used, then it becomes a perfect
square.
882 × 2 = (2 × 2) × (3 × 3) × (7 × 7)
The least number required is ‘2’
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7
49
147
441
882
7
3 3
2
3. Find the cube root of 2985984 (Factor method)
2985984 = 23 × 23 × 23 × 23 × 33 × 33
3 2985984 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 = 16 × 9 = 144
1
3
3
9
27
81
243
729
1458
2916
5832
11664
23328
46656
93312
186624
373248
746496
1492992
2985984
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
4. Find the value of
4 0.04
4 0.04
+
-
0.9
21
19
42
38
4.2
3.8
4 0.2
4 0.2
4 0.04
4 0.04
= = = =
+
-
=
+
-
5. 30
3
90
0.3
9
0.09
81
0.09
81
= = = =
6. Simplify
4
3
3
4
-
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2 3
1
2 3
4 3
2
3
3
2
4
3
3
4
=
-
- = - =
8. Find the value of
16
1
410
16
1
410 =
16
6561
=
16
6561
=
4
81
=
4
1
20
6.Find the least number with which you multiply 882. So that the product may be
a perfect square.
First find the factors of 882.
7
49
147
441
882
7
3 3
2
Now, 882 has factors as shown above.
‘3’ repeated twice, ‘7’ repeated twice and ‘2’ only
once. So, when one more factor ‘2’ is used, then
it becomes a perfect square.
?882×2=(2×2)×(3×3)×(7×7)
?The least number required is ‘2’.
7. Find the cube root of 2985984 (Factor method)
3
9
27
81
243
729
1458
2916
5832
11664
23328
46656
93312
186624
373248
746496
1492992
2985984
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
?2985984 = 23×23×23×23×33×33
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?3 2985984 = 2× 2× 2× 2× 3× 3 = 16× 9 = 144
8.Find the value of
4 0.04
4 0.04
+
-
4 0.2
4 0.2
4 0.04
4 0.04
+
-
=
+
-
= 0.9
21
19
42
38
4.242
3.8
= = = (approx)
9.
0.09
81
=
0.09
81
=
0.3
9
=
3
90
= 30
10. Simplify
3
4
-
4
3
3
4
-
4
3
=
2
3
3
2
- =
2 3
4 - 3
=
2 3
1
11. Find the least number with which 1728 may be added so that the
resulting number is a perfect square.
164
128
16
1728
42
82
4
Note:
Take the square root of 1728 by long division method. It comes
to 41.+ something. As shown, if 128 is made 164, we get the
square root as an integer. The difference between 164 and 128
i.e., 36 must be added to 1728, so that 1764 is a perfect
square 1764 =42
Theory of Indices
Problems:
1. A certain number of persons agree to subscribe as many rupees each as there
are subscribers. The whole subscription is Rs.2582449. Find the number of
subscriber?
Let the number of subscribers be x, say since each subscriber agrees to
subscribe x rupees.
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The total subscription = no. of persons × subscription per person
= x × x = x2
given x2 = 2582449
?x = 1607
2. Simplify: 3 192a3b4
Use the 2 formulas
( )
( m )n mn
m m m m
a a
abc a b c
=
=
( )3
1
3 192a3b4 = 192a3b4
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
3 4
3
1
4
3
4
3
1
2
3
4
6
3
1
3 4
1
3
3
1
4a. 3b
4a.3b
2 .3 .ab
2 3.ab
192 .a b
=
=
=
= ×
=
3. Simplify 3 x9y12
Sol.
( )3
1
3 x9y12 = x9y12
( ) ( )
3 4
3
1
3 12
1
9
x y
x y
=
=
4. Find the number whose square is equal to the difference between the squares of
75.12 and 60.12
Sol.
Let ‘x’ be the number required
?x2 = (75.12)2 – (60.12)2
= (75.12 + 60.12) (75.12 – 60.12)
= 135.24 ×15 = 2028.60
?x = 2028.60 = 45.0399
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5. Reduce to an equivalent fraction write rational denominator
Sol.
( )( )
( 5 3)( 5 3)
3 5 3 3 3
5 3
3 5 3
+ -
+ +
=
-
+
9 2 15
2
18 4 15
5 3
15 3 15 15 3
= +
+
=
-
+ + +
=
6. Find the value of
10
9
55
7
2
44
21
14 × ×
Sol.
5.26
10
9
55
117
44
637
10
9
55
7
2
44
21
14 × × = × × = approx.
7. An army general trying to draw his 16,160 men in rows so that there are as
many men as true are rows, found that he had 31 men over. Find the number of
men in the front row.
Let ‘a’ be the number of men in the front row.
a2 + 31 = 161610
No. of men in the front row = 127
a2 = 161610 – 31 = 16129
?a = 127
8. A man plants his orchid with 5625 trees and arranges them so that there are as
many rows as there are trees in a row. How many rows are there?
Sol.
Let ‘x’ be the number of rows and let the number of trees in a row be ‘x’ say
x2 = 5625
?x = 75
?There are 75 trees in a row and 75 rows are arranged.
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TIME AND WORK
Points for recapitulation while solving problems on time and work:
1. If a person can do a piece of work in ‘m’ days, he can do
m
1 of the work in 1 day.
2. If the number of persons engaged to do a piece of work be increased (or
decreased) in a certain ratio the time required to do the same work will be
decreased (or increased) in the same ratio.
3. If A is twice as good a workman as B, then A will take half the time taken by B to
do a certain piece of work.
4. Time and work are always in direct proportion.
5. If two taps or pipes P and Q take ‘m’ and ‘n’ hours respectively to fill a cistern or
tank, then the two pipes together fill ??
?
??
? +
n
1
m
1
part of the tank in 1 hour and the
entire tank is filled in
m n
mn
n
1
m
1
1
+
=
+
hours.
Examples:
1. If 12 man can do a piece of work in 36 days. In how many days 18 men can do
the same work?
Solution:
12 men can do a work in 36 days.
18 men can do the work in 36
18
12
× = 24 days.
Note:
If the number of men is increased, the number of days to finish the
work will decrease.
2. A and B can finish a work in 12 days. B and C can finish the same work in 18
days. C and A can finish in 24 days. How many days will take for A, B and C
combined together to finish the same amount of work?
Solution:
A and B can finish the work in 12 days.
(A+B) Can finish in 1 day
12
1
of the work.
Similarly (B+C) can finish in
18
1
of the work.
(C+A) can finish in
24
1
of the work.
2(A+B+C) can finish in 1 day ( )
24
1
18
1
12
1
+ + of the work.
=
72
13
72
6 4 3
=
+ +
of the work.
(A+B+C) can finish in 1 day =
144
13
of the work.
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?(A+B+C) can together finish the work in
13
144
=
13
1
11 days.
3. A, B and C earn Rs.120 per day while A and C earn Rs.80 per day and B and
C earn Rs.66 per day. Find C’s earning only.
Solution:
(A+B+C) earn per day Rs.120? (1)
(A+C) earn per day Rs.80? (2)
(B+C) earn per day Rs.66 ? (3)
From (1) and (2),
we find that C earns Rs.40
From (3) we get,
That B earns 26 since C earns Rs.40
4. 4 men or 8 women can do a piece of work in 24 days. In how many days, will
12 men and 8 women do the same work?
Solution:
4 men = 8 women can do a work in 24 days.
1 man or 2 women in one day can finish
24
1
of the work.
Now 12 men and 8 women together will do the work as 16 men alone
can do the work.
16 men can do in one day =
3
2
24
16
= of the work.
16 men can do the entire work in
2
3
or
2
1
1 days.
5. A and B can finish a work in 16 days, while A alone can do the same work
in 24 days. In how many days, B alone can finish the same work?
Solution:
A and B can finish a work in 16 days.
(A+B) can finish in one day
16
1
of the work.
A alone can finish in one day
24
1
of the work.
The amount of work that B alone can do in one day
48
1
48
3 2
24
1
16
1
=
-
- = of the work.
B alone can complete the work in 48 days.
6. A and B can do a piece of work in 12 days. B and C can do it in 20 days. If
A is twice as good a workman as C, then in what time will B alone do it?
Solution:
(A+B) can do a work in 12 days.
(A+B) in one day can do
12
1
of the work? (1)
Similarly (B+C) in one day can do
20
1
of the work? (2)
Since A=2C, in (1) put A=2C
?(2C+B) in one day can do
12
1
of the work.
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i.e., [(B+C)+C] in one day can do
12
1 of the work.
C alone can do in one day
20
1
12
1
- =
30
1
60
2
60
5 3
= =
-
of work? (3)
From (2), using (3), B alone can do in one day
60
1
60
3 2
30
1
20
1
=
-
- = of work.
?B alone can do the entire work in 60 days.
7. A contractor undertook to do a piece of work in 125 days and employs 175
men to carry out the job, but after 40 days, he finds that one a quarter of the
work had been carried out. How many more men should be employed to
finish the work in time?
Solution:
Men Days Work
175 40
4
1
?(x) 85
4
3
x= 175 ×
85
40
×
4
1
4
3
= 247
(247 – 175) or 72 men will have to be employed.
8. B is twice as fast as A and C is twice as fast as B. If A alone can complete
the job in 28 days, how many days will A, B and C take to complete the job
working together?
Solution:
Given B = 2A
C= 2B (efficiency-wise)
A can complete the work in 28 days (given)
?B alone can complete the work in 14 days [?B is twice as fast as A]
Hence, C alone can complete the work in 7 days [?C is twice as fast
as B]
(A+B+C) working together can complete ??
?
??
? + +
7
1
14
1
28
1
part of the
work in 1 day.
=
4
1
28
7
28
1 2 4
= =
+ +
of the work in one day.
?(A+B+C) working together can complete the entire work in 4 days.
9. A cistern is normally filled in 6 hours, but takes 2 hours more to fill it
because of a leak at its bottom. If the cistern is full, how long will it take for
the leak to empty the cistern?
Solution:
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The cistern is filled in 6 hours.
? In 1 hour
6
1
of the cistern will be filled.
Due to a leak in the cistern, in 1 hour
8
1
of the cistern only is filled.
?Leakage in 1 hour =
24
1
24
4 3
8
1
6
1
=
-
- = of the cistern.
24
1
of the cistern is leaked out in 1 hour.
The entire cistern will become empty in 24 hours.
10. Two pipes A and B are attached to a cistern. Pipe A can fill the cistern in 6
hours while pipe B can empty it in 8 hours. When both the pipes are opened
together, find the time for filling the cistern.
Solution:
Pipe A fills in an hour =
6
1
of the cistern.
Pipe B empties in one hour
8
1
of the cistern.
In 1 hour, the portion of the cistern filled =
24
1
8
1
6
1
- =
?Time taken to fill the cistern = 24 hours.
11. The efficiency of the first machine tool is 20% less than that of the 2nd
one. The first machine tool operated for 5 hours, whereas, the second one
operated for 4 hours and together they machined 4000 work pieces. Find the
number of work-pieces machined by the first machine tool.
Solution:
Efficiency of the two machine tools = 80: 100 = 4: 5
Time ratio of the two machine tools = 5: 4
? Work ratio of the two machine tools = 4×5: 5×4 = 20: 20 = 1: 1
Thus both the machine tools produced the same number of workpieces
Viz., 2000
2
4000
=
Alternative:
The second machine operating for 4 hours = first machine operating for 5
hours. Hence the first machine would produce 4000 pieces in 10 hours. In 5
hours it would have produced 2000 pieces.
12. Two coal loading trucks handle 9000 tonnes of coal at an efficiency of
90% working 12 hours per day for 8 days. How many hours a day, 3 coal
loading trucks should work at an efficiency of 80% so as to load 12000 tonnes
of coal in 6 days.
Solution:
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No of lorries Efficiency Hours of
work per day
No of days. Tonnes
2 90% 12 8 9000
3 80% ? =X 6 12000
X= 12
9000
12000
6
8
80
90
3
2
× × × × = 16 hours.
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TIME AND DISTANCE
1. Speed
t
s
v = where s = Total distance
t = Total time
2. s = vt
3.
v
s
t =
4. The relative velocity of two bodies moving at velocities u and v(u>v) in the same
direction is u – v.
5. The relative velocity of two bodies moving in opposite directions is u + v.
6. A train or a moving body of known length has to travel its own length in passing
a lamppost or a fixed body of insignificant size.
7. A train or a moving body must travel its own length plus the length of the
stationary body in question, if the train or the moving body has to pass a
stationary body i.e. a bridge, a railway platform etc.
8. Motion downstream or upstream:
Velocity of boat downstream = u + v
Velocity of boat upstream = u – v
Where ‘u’ is the velocity of the boat in still waters and ‘v’ is the
velocity of the stream.
9. If a man changes his speed in the ratio u : v, the corresponding ratio of times will
be
v : u
Examples
1. A train travels 18 km/hr. How many metres will it travel in 12 minutes.
Sol:
Distance travelled in 1 hour i.e. 60 minutes = 18 km
= 18×1000 metres.
? Distance travelled in 12 minutes =
60
18 ×1000 ×12
= 3600 metres.
2. A passenger train running at 60 km/hr leaves the railway station 5 hours after
a goods train had left and overtakes it in 4 hours. What is the speed of the
goods train?
Sol:
Let the speed of the goods train be x km/hr.
Distance travelled by goods train before the passenger train overtakes it
= Speed×time
= x (5 + 4) = 9x km -------(1)
Distance traveled by passenger train before it overtakes the goods train
= 60 × 4 = 240 km -------(2)
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Equate (1) and (2), We get 9x = 240
x = km/hr
3
2
26
9
240
=
Alternative:
The slower train covers in 9 hours the distance of 240km covered by the
faster train in 4 hours.Hence speed of slower train =
9
240
or 26
3
2
km/hr.
3. A certain distance is covered with a certain speed. If
4
1
th of the distance is
covered in twice the time, Find the ratio of this speed to that of the original
speed.
Sol:
Let the distance be = x
and the speed be = y, say -----1
Time taken =
y
x
In the second instance distance = x
4
1
Time=
y
3x
? Speed = ..........2
12
y
3x
y
4
x
3x / y
x / 4
time
dis tance
= = × =
Ratio of speed =
12
1
y
y /12
=
= 1 : 12
4. A train 300 m. long passes a pole in 15 sec. Find the speed.
Sol:
Distance= 300 m
Time = 15 sec
? Speed = 20m/ sec
15
300
time
dis tan ce
= =
5. How many seconds will it take for a train 120 metres long moving at the rate
of 15 m/sec to overtake another train 150 m long running from the opposite
side at the rate of 90 km/hr?
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Sol:
Speed of the first train = 15 m/s.
Speed of the second train = 25m/ s
18
5
90× =
Since both the train are moving in opposite directions, relative speed = sum
of the speed of the two trains.
= (15 + 25) = 40 m/ sec.
Total distance = sum of the length of the two trains
= 120 + 150 = 270 metres.
Time taken = 6.75 sec onds
40
270
speed
dis tance
= =
Note:
From km/hr into m/sec, the conversion ratio is
18
5
. From m/sec to km/hr
conversion ratio is 18/5.
6. A train running between two stations A and B arrives at its destination 15
minutes late, when its speed is 45 km/hr. and 36 minutes late when its speed is
36 km/hr. find the distance between the stations A and B.
Sol:
Let ‘x’ km be the distance between the station A and B.
Speed of the train = 45 km/hr
Time taken = hours
45
x
Since the train is late by 15 minutes = hr
4
1
Actual time = hrs 1
4
1
45
x
- - - - ??
?
?? ?
-
Time taken when the speed is 36 km/hr = hrs
36
x
Now, since the train is late by 36 min i.e.,
5
3
60
36
= hrs
Actual time = ??
?
??
? -
5
3
36
x
hrs -------(2)
Equating (1) and (2), we get
5
3
36
x
4
1
45
x
- = -
?
4
1
4
3
45
x
36
x
- = -
=>
20
7
20
12 5
180
5x 4x
=
-
=
-
20
7
180
x
=
?? x =
20
7×180
= 63 km
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7. If a man travels at a speed of 20 km/hr, then reaches his destination late by
15 minutes and if he travels at a speed of 50 km/hr. Then he reaches 15
minutes earlier. How far is his destination?
Let ‘x’ be the distance of his destination from his starting point.
When his speed is 20 km/hr
Time taken =
20
x
hrs
Since, he is late by 15 minutes ie.,
4
1
hrs
Actual time =
4
1
20
x
- ---------1
When his speed is 50 km/hr, time taken =
50
x
hrs
Now, since he reaches early by 15 minutes ie.,
4
1
hrs.
Actual time =
50
x
+
4
1
---------2
Equating 1 and 2 , we get
4
1
20
x
- =
50
x
+
4
1
=>
20
x
-
50
x
=
4
1
+
4
1
=
2
1
km
3
2
16
3
50
2 3
100
x
2
1
100
3x
2
1
100
5x 2x
= =
×
=> =
=> =
=
-
=>
8. A person is standing on a railway bridge 70m. Long. He finds that a train
crosses the bridge in 6 secs. but himself in 4 secs. Find the length of the train
and its speed in km/hr.
Sol:
Let the speed of the train be x m/sec and the length of the bridge = y
metres.
When the train crosses the bridge, speed = x m/sec
Distance = (90 + y) m
? Time =
x
90 + y
ie .,
x
90 + y
= 6
ie ., 90 + y = 6x
6x – y = 90 ----------1
When the man is crossed by the train, speed = x m/sec
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distance = y m
?Time =
x
y
ie .,
x
y
= 4
y = 4x ---------2
Solving 1 and 2, 6x – 4x = 90
?? 2x = 90
x = 45 m/sec
And y = 4x = 4 × 45
= 180 metres
? Speed = 45 m/sec = 45 ×
5
18 = 9× 18 = 162 km/hr
Length of the train = 180 metres.
9. A wheel rotates 12 times in a minute and moves 5 metres during each rotation.
What is the time taken for the wheel to move through 930 metres?
Sol:
For one rotation, distance moved = 5 metres
For 12 rotations, distance moved = 12 × 5 = 60 metres
Distance covered in 1 minute = 60 metres
Total distance covered by the wheel = 930 minutes
Total time taken = 15.5
60
930
= minutes.
10. A boat sails 6 km upstream at the rate of 4 kmph. If the stream flows at the rate
of 3 km/hr., how long will it take for the boat to make the return journey?
Sol:
Speed of stream = 3 km/hr
Speed of boat in still water = speed of stream + speed of boat upstream
= 3 + 4 = 7 km/hr.
Distance to be covered during the return journey downstream = 6 km
Speed of the boat downstream = Speed of the boat in still water + speed
of the Stream
= 7 + 3 = 10 km/hr.
Time taken for the return journey = Distance downstream/Speed of boat
Downstream
= 60 36
10
6
hrs
10
6
= × = min.
11. A car covers a distance PQ in 32 minutes. If the distance between P and Q is
54km., find the average speed of the car.
Sol:
Average speed of the car =
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101.25
4
405
4
27 15
32
54 60
32 /60
54
Time(inhrs)
Dis tance(inkm)
= =
×
=
×
= = km/hr
12. A train travelling at y km/hr arrives at its destination 1 hour late after describing
a distance of120 km. What should have been its speed in order that it arrives on
time?
Sol:
Normal time + 1 hour =
y
120
Normal time =
y
120
-1 =
y
120 - y
Normal speed to arrive on time =
? ??
?
? ??
? -
=
y
120 y
120
Normal time
120km
=
120 y
120y
-
km/hr.
13. A boy rides his motorcycle 45 km at an average rate of 25 km/hr and 30 km at
an average speed of 20 km/hr. What is the average speed during the entire trip of
75 km?
Sol:
Total distance traveled = 45 + 30 = 75 km
Total time taken = Time for the first 45 km + Time for the next 30 km
=
10
33
10
18 15
2
3
5
9
20
30
25
45
=
+
+ = + = Hours.
Average speed for the entire journey =
33
24
22
33
750
33
75 10
33/10
75
Total time
Totaldistance
= =
×
= = km/hr.
14. A motorist travels from P to Q in the rate of 30 km/hr and returns from Q to P at
the rate of 45 km/hr. If the distance PQ = 120 km. Find the average speed for the
entire trip.
Sol:
Time from P to Q = 4
30
120
speed
Distance
= =
Time from Q to P =
9
24
45
120
=
Average speed for the entire journey =
36
60
240 9
9
60
240
9
24
4
120 120
Totaltime
Totaldistance
=
×
= =
+
+
= km/hr
15. A wheel rotates 15 times each minute. How many degrees will it rotate in 12
seconds of time?
Sol:
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In 12 seconds or
5
1
of a minute, the wheel rotates
5
15
or 3 times. Angle
through which it turns = 3 × 360
= 1080
16. The distance between the cities M and N is 275 km along the rail-route and 185
km, along the aerial route. How many hours shorter is the trip by plane traveling at
250km/hr. than by train traveling at 80 km/hr?
Sol:
Time taken along the rail-route =
80
275
speedof train
Distance
= hours ________ (1)
Time taken to travel by air =
250
185
speedof plane
aerialdistance
= hours _________ (2)
(1) – (2) gives
400
279
2
400
1079
400
1375 296
400
25 55 37 8
50
37
16
55
250
185
80
275
= =
-
=
× - ×
- = - =
= 2 hours 41 min. 51 sec.
17. An elevator in a 12-storey building travels the rate of 1 floor every 15 seconds.
At the ground floor and the top floor, the lift stops for 50 sec. How many round trips
will the elevator make during a 5 ½ hour period.
Sol:
Time taken for the elevator to make 1 round trip starting from the ground =
50 sec + 50 sec + 12 × 15 sec + 12 × 15 secs
= 100 + 180 + 180 = 460 sec
Total number of round trips =
Timetakenfor oneroundtrip
Totaltime
= 43
2 460
11 60 60
460
60 60
2
1
5
=
×
× ×
=
× ×
approx.
Race: A contest of speed in running, riding, driving, sailing or rowing is called a
race.
Dead-heat race: If all the persons contesting a race reach the goal at the same
time, then it is called a dead-heat race.
Examples:
1. A can run a km in 3 min and 54 sec and B can run the same distance in 4 min
and 20 sec. By what distance can A beat B?
A beats B by 26 sec.
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Distance covered by B is 260 sec = 1000 mtrs
Distance covered by B is 26 sec = 26 100
260
1000
× = mtrs.
A beats B by 100 mtrs.
2. A and B run a km and A wins by 1 min.
A and C run a km and A wins by 375 mtrs.
B and C run a km and B wins by 30 sec
Find the time taken by B to run a km.
A beats B by 60 sec
B beats C by 30 sec
Hence A beats C by 90 secs. But we are given that A beats C by 375 mtrs. i.e. C
covers 375 mtrs in 90 sec.
Hence, time taken by C to cover 1 km = 1000 240
375
90
× = sec
Time taken by B to cover 1 km = 240 – 30 = 210 secs.
3. In a race A has a start of 100mtrs and sets off 6 min before B, at the rate of 10
km/hr. How soon will B overtake A, if his speed of running is 12 km/hr.
Speed of A =
60
10
Distance run by A is 6 min = 6 1000
60
10
× = mtrs.
A has a start of 1000 + 100 = 1100 mtrs. In order to overtake A, B should gain
1100 mtrs. But B gains 2000 mtrs in 60 min.
The time taken by B to gain 1100 mtrs. = 1100 33
2000
60
× = min.
4. A can walk 3 km while B walks 5 kms.
C can walk 6 km while A walks 3.5 km
What start can C give B in a 3 km walk?
C walks 6 km while A walk 3.5
If A walks 3 km, then C walks =
7
36
3.5 3
6
=
×
km
If C walks
7
36
km, then B walks 5 km
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If C walks 3 km, then B walks = km
12
35
3
36
5 7
× =
×
C should give B a start of km
12
35
3 ??
?
??
? - i.e.
12
1
of a km.
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Ratio, Proportion and Variation
1.
b
a
is the ratio of a to b; b ? 0.
2. When two ratios are equal, they are said to be in proportion. If
d
c
b
a
= , then
b
a
is
in proportion with
d
c
and can be written as a: b: : c: d. where ‘a’ and ‘d’ are
called ‘extremes’ and ‘c’ and ‘b’ the means. For a, b, c, d to be in proportion the
product of the extremes = the product of the means.
i.e. ad = bc
3. Direct proportion: When
b
a
= k or a = kb then ‘a’ is directly proportional to ‘b’,
where k is a constant.
4. Inverse proportion: When ‘a’ and ‘b’ are so related that ab = k, a constant, then
‘a’ and ‘b’ are said to be inversely proportional to each other.
5. If a sum of money S is divided in the ratio a : b : c then the three parts are
(i) S
a b c
a
+ +
(ii) S
a b c
b
+ +
(iii) S
a b c
c
+ +
6. If a : b = m : n and b : c = p : q then a : b : c = mp : np : nq
7. If A and B are two partners investing in the ratio of m : n for the same period of
time, then the ratio of profits is m : n
8. If the investment is in the ratio m : n and the period in the ratio p : q then the
ratio of profits is mp : nq.
9. If m kg of one kind costing ‘a’ rupees/kg is mixed with ‘n’ kg of another kind
costing Rs.b/kg, then the price of the mixture is
m n
ma nb
+
+
10. If ‘a’ varies as ‘b’, then a = kb, where ‘k is called the constant of proportionality.
(Direct variation).
11. If ‘a’ varies as ‘b’ and ‘b’ varies as ‘c’, there a = kb and b = k’c. Where k, k’ are
constants. ? a = (kk’)c = ?c, where ? = kk’, is another constant. ? ‘a’ varies as
‘c’.
12. if ‘a’ varies directly as ‘b’ and ‘b’ varies inversely as ‘c’ then a = kb and b =
c
k'
.
? a =
c
?
c
kk'
= where ? = kk’. Hence ‘a’ varies inversely as ‘c’ (mixed
variation).
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Ratio, Proportion and Variation:
1. If
3
2
y
x
= find the value of
4x 3y
3x 4y
+
+
Solution:
Consider
4x 3y
3x 4y
+
+
=
17
18
17
6 3
3
8 9
2 4
3
3
2
4
4
3
2
3
3
y
x
4
4
y
x
3
=
×
=
+
+
=
× +
× +
=
+ ?
??
?
? ??
?
+ ?
??
?
? ??
?
2. What is the least number which when subtracted from both the terms of the
fraction
7
6 will be give a ratio equal to ?
21
16
Let
21
16
7 x
6 x
=
-
-
21(6 – x) = 16(7 – x)
126 – 21x = 112 – 16x
5x = 14
2.8
5
14
x = =
3. What is the least number which when added to both the terms of the fraction
9
7
will give a ratio equal to
23
19
?
Let
23
19
9 x
7 x
=
+
+
23(7 + x) = 19(9 + x)
161 + 23x = 171 + 19x
4x = 171 – 161 = 10
2.5
4
10
x = =
4. If
a b
c
c a
b
b c
a
+
=
+
=
+
find the value of each fraction
Note: If
f
e
d
c
b
a
= = then each ratio =
b d f
a c e
+ +
+ +
Let
a b
c
c a
b
b c
a
+
=
+
=
+
Each ratio =
2
1
2(a b c)
a b c
b c c a a b
a b c
=
+ +
+ +
=
+ + + + +
+ +
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5. For what value of ‘m’, will the ratio
12 m
7 m
+
+
be equal to
6
5 ?
Let
12 m
7 m
+
+
=
6
5
say
6 (7 + m) = 5(12 + m)
42 + 6m = 60 + 5m
m = 18
6. If 6x2 +6y2 =13xy what is the ratio of x : y
Solution:
6x2 + 6y2 = 13xy
Divide through out by y2
? ??
?
? ??
?
= + ?
??
?
? ??
?
y
x
6 13
y
x
6
2
Put t
y
x
= ? 6t2 – 13t + 6 = 0
? 6t2 – 9t – 4t + 6 = 0
? 3t(2t – 3) – 2(2t – 3) = 0
? (2t – 3) (3t –2) = 0
3
2
or
2
3
t =
3
2
or
2
3
y
x
? =
7. If
d
c
b
a
= then, prove that 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
c cd a
a ab b
c cd d
a ab b
- +
- +
=
+ +
+ +
Solution:
Let
d
c
b
a
= = K, say
a = bk ; c = dk
Consider 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
d
b
d (k k 1)
b (k k 1)
d k d k d
b k b k b
c cd d
a ab b
=
+ +
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
------------ (1)
Consider 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
d
b
d (k k 1)
b (k k 1)
d k d k d
b k b k b
c cd d
a ab b
=
- +
- +
=
- +
- +
=
- +
- +
----------- (2)
From (1) and (2) we find 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
c cd d
a ab b
c cd d
a ab b
- +
- +
=
+ +
+ +
8. If
pq
xy
p q
x y
2 2
2 2
=
+
+
then find the value of
x y
x y
-
+
Solution:
pq
xy
p q
x y
2 2
2 2
=
+
+
2pq
2xy
p q
x y
2 2
2 2
=
+
+
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2pq
p q
2xy
x2 y2 2 + 2
=
+
Use componendo dividendo
If
c d
c d
a b
a b
then
d
c
b
a
-
+
=
-
+
=
By componendo dividendo,
p q 2pq
p q 2pq
x y 2xy
x y 2xy
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
+ -
+ +
=
+ -
+ +
p q
p q
x y
x y
(p q)
(p q)
(x y)
(x y)
2
2
2
2
-
+
±
-
+
?
-
+
=
-
+
9. Which is greater of the following two ratios given that a and b are positive.
a 7b
a 6b
or
a 6b
a 5b
+
+
+
+
Solution:
Consider
a 7b
a 6b
-
a 6b
a 5b
+
+
+
+
0
(a 6b)(a 7b)
b
(a 6b)(a 7b)
a 12ab 35b a 12ab 36b
(a 6b)(a 7b)
(a 5b)(a 7b) (a 6b)
2
2 2 2 2
2
<
+ +
= -
+ +
+ + - - -
=
+ +
+ + - +
=
a 6b
a 5b
a 7b
a 6b
+
+
>
+
+
if a, b are >0
10. Which is greater:
a b c
a b c
or
a b c
a b c
+ -
- +
- -
+ +
, given that a, b, c are positive and (a –
b)>c
Solution:
Consider
a b c
a b c
a b c
a b c
+ -
- +
-
- -
+ +
( )
(a b c)(a b c)
a b c (a b c) (a b c)(a b c)
- - + -
+ + + - - - + - -
=
(a b c)(a b c)
a2 ab ac ab b2 bc ca bc c2 a2 ab ac ab b2 bc ca bc c2
- - + -
+ - + + - + + - - + + + - - - + +
=
( )( ) 0
a b c a b c
4ab
>
- - + -
= (all the other terms cancel out, leaving only 4ab in the
numerator)
Hence
a b c
a b c
a b c
a b c
+ -
- +
>
- -
+ +
since a, b, c are positive and (a – b)>c
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ALLIGATION or MIXTURE
Alligation:
Alligation is a rule to find the proportion in which two or more ingredients at
the given price must be mixed to produce a mixture at a given price.
Cost per price of unit Quantity of the mixture is called the Mean price.
Rule of alligation:
If two ingredients are mixed in a ratio, then
(Meanprice) (C.P.of cheaper)
(C.P.of dearer) (Meanprice)
Quantityof dearer
Quantityof cheaper
-
-
=
Cost price of a unit C.P. of a unit
Cheaper quantity (c) quantity of dearer (d)
Mean Price (m)
d – m m – c
Cheaper Quantity: dearer quantity = (d – m) : (m – c)
EXAMPLES:
1. How many kg of wheat costing Rs.6.10 /kg must be mixed with 126 kg of wheat
costing Rs.2.85/kg, so that 15% may be gained by selling the mixture at
Rs.4.60/kg.
C.P. of mixture = 4.60 Rs.4
115
100
× =
C.P. of 1kg of cheaper C.P. of 1 kg of
wheat dearer wheat
(285 paise) (610 paise)
Mean Price
(400 paise)
115
210
Quantity of dearerwheat
Quantity of cheaperwheat
=
23
42
115
210
=
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If cheaper wheat is 42 kg then dear one is 23 kg.
If cheaper wheat is 126 kg, then dearer one = 126 69kg
42
23
× =
2. A waiter stole wine from a bottle of sherry, which contained 30% of spirit, and he
filled the join with wine, which contains only 15% of spirit. The strength of the jar
then was only 22%. How much of the did he steal?
Wine with 30% spirit Wine with
15% Spirit
22
7 8
By alligation rule
8
7
winewith15%of spirit
winewith30%of spirit
=
They must mixed in the ratio 7:8.
The waiter removed
15
8
of the jar.
3. ‘x’ covers a distance of 60 km in 6 hrs partly on foot at the rate of 4 km/hr and
partly on a cycle at 14 km/hr. Find the distance traveled on foot.
Average distance traveled in 1 hr = 10 km
Suppose x travels y hrs at 4km/hr
He travels (6 – y) hrs at 14km/hr
Total distance travelled = 4y + (6 – y) 14 km
4y + (6 – y)14 = 60
y = 2.4
4. A mixture of 40 litres of milk contains 20% of water. How much water must be
added to make the water 25% in the new mixture?
Water quantity initially = 40 8
100
20
× = litres.
Quantity of milk initially = 40 – 8 = 32 litres
Milk + Water = (32) + (8 + x) = 40 + x
We are given that
100 25
40 x
8 x
× =
+
+
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3
8
x =
3
2
6 litres of water must be added.
5. Four litres of phenol is drawn from a can. It is then filled water. Four litres of
mixture is drawn again and the bottle is again filled with water. The quantity of
phenol now left in the bottle is to that of water is in the ratio 36:13. How much
does the bottle hold?
Hint:
Amount of liquid left after n operation, if x is the capacity of the container
from which y units are taken out each time is
??
?? ?
??
?? ?
??
?
??
? -
n
x
y
x 1 units.
Here y = 4 n = 2
49
36
x
4
4 1
2
= ??
?
??
? -
49
9
x
4
1
2
= ??
?
??
? -
7
3
x
4
1 - =
x = 7
The bottle holds 7 litres.
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AVERAGE
Number of quantities
Sumof allquantities
Average =
EXAMPLES:
1. The average age of 30 kids is 9 years. If the teacher’s age is included, the
average age becomes 10 years. What is the teacher’s age?
Total age of 30 children = 30 × 9 = 270 yrs.
Average age of 30 children and 1 teacher = 10 yrs
Total of their ages = 31 × 10 = 310 yrs
Teacher’s age = 310 – 270 = 40
2. The average of 6 numbers is 8. What is the 7th number, so that the average
becomes 10?
Let x be the 7th number
Total of 6 numbers = 6 × 8 = 48
We are given that = 10
7
48 x
=
+
x = 22
3. Five years ago, the average of Raja and Rani’s ages was 20 yrs. Now the average
age of Raja, Rani and Rama is 30 yrs. What will be Rama’s age 10 yrs hence?
Total age of Raja and Rani 5 years ago = 40
Total age of Raja and Rani now = 40 + 5 + 5 = 50
Total age of Raja, Rani and Rama now = 90
Rama’s age now = 90 – 50 = 40
Rama’s age after 10 years = 50
4. Out of three numbers, the first is twice the second and thrice the third. If their
average is 88, find the numbers.
Third number = x (say)
First number = 3x
Second number =
2
3x
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Total =
2
3x
x + 3x +
Average = ) 88
2
3
(1 3
3
x
+ + = (given)
i.e., 88
2
11
3
x
× =
x = 48
48, 144, 72 are the numbers.
5. The average of 8 numbers is 21. Find the average of new set of numbers when 8
multiplies every number.
Total of 8 numbers = 168
Total of new 8 numbers = 168 × 8 = 1344
Average of new set = 168
8
1344
=
6. The average of 30 innings of a batsman is 20 and another 20 innings is 30. What
is the average of all the innings?
Total of 50 innings = (30 × 20 + 20 × 30) = 1200
Average = 24
50
1200
=
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Average Speed:
If an object covers equal distances at x km/hr and y km/hr, then
Average Speed =
x y
2xy
+
In another way,
Average speed =
Totaltime
Distance
EXAMPLES:
1. A cyclist travels to reach a post at a speed of 15 km/hr and returns at the rate of
10km/hr. What is the average speed of the cyclist?
Average Speed =
25
2 × 15 × 10
= 12 km/hr.
2. With an average speed of 40 km/hr, a train reaches its destination in time. If it
goes with an average speed of 35 km/hr, it is late by 15 minutes. What is the
total distance?
Let x be the total distance
4
1
40
x
35
x
- =
x = 70 km
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Progressions
A sequence or a series is an ordered collection of numbers. For example 3, 5,
7, 9, 11…….. form a sequence.
(1) Arithmetic Progression (AP):
a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, ………….are said to form an Arithmetic progression.
a = first term
d = common difference
‘n’ th term of the A.P = tn = a + (n – 1)d
Sum to ‘n’ terms of the A.P = [2a (n 1)d]
2
n
+ -
(Or) = [t t ]
2
n
1 + n , Where t1 = First term = a
tn = nth term = a + (n – 1)d.
(2) Geometric Progression (G.P)
a, ar, ar2, ar3 ……… are said to form a G.P.
a – First term
r – common ratio
‘n’ th term of a G.P. = arn-1
Sum to ‘n’ terms of a G.P. =
r 1
a(rn 1)
-
-
if n > 1
Sum to ‘8 ’of a G.P. =
1 r
a
-
if |r| < 1
(3) Harmonic Progression (H.P)
a, b, c, d ……are in H.P., then their reciprocals viz.,
d
1
,
c
1
,
b
1
,
a
1
………are in A.P.
Example:
If a, b, c are in H.P. then
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c
1
,
b
1
,
a
1
are in A.P.
b
2
c
1
a
1
+ =
b
2
ac
a c
=
+
?
1. Find the 20th term of the series 5 + 9 + 13 + 17 + 21 + ………..
The given series in A.P.
‘a’ = 5
‘d’ = 4
nth term = t n = a + (n – 1)d
20th term = t 20 = 5 + (20 – 1)4 = 5 + 19 × 4 = 81
2. Find the sum up to 30 terms of the A.P.
2 + 9 + 16 + 23 + ……….
Here ‘a’ = 2 n = 30
‘d’ = 7
[2a (n 1)d]
2
n
Sn = + -
[4 (30 1)7]
2
30
S30 = + - = 15 (4 + 7 × 29)
15 × 207 = 3105
3. Find the 8th term of the G.P 2, 6, 18, 54, …………
Here ‘a’ = 2 ; ‘r’ = 3
nth term = t n = ar
n-1
8th term = t 8 = 2 × 3
7 = 4374
4. Find the sum of the first 9 terms of the G.P.
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1 + 3 + 9 + 27 + 81 + ………..
Here ‘a’ = 1; ‘r’ = 3
Sum of n terms =
r 1
a(r 1)
S
n
n -
-
=
Sum to ‘9’ terms = (3 1) 9841
2
1
3 1
1(3 1)
S 9
9
9 = - =
-
-
=
5. The 4th and 9th terms of a G.P are 1/3 and 81 respectively. Find the first term.
t4 = ar3 =
3
1
------------ (1)
t9 = ar8 = 81 ------------ (2)
81 3 243
1/3
81
ar
ar
gives
(1)
(2)
3
8
= = × =
i.e., r5 = 243, Hence r = 3
Since,
3
1
ar3 =
27 a =
3
1
81
1
27 3
1
a =
×
=
Hence ‘a’ =
81
1
; r = 3
6. Show that the sum of ‘n’ consecutive odd numbers beginning with unity is a
square number.
Consider the series of odd numbers 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + ……
‘a’ = 1 ; d = 2
2
n [2n] n
2
n
[2 (n 1)2]
2
n
[2a (n 1)d]
2
n
S = + - = + - = =
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7. How many terms of the series 1 + 5 + 9 + ……. must be taken in order that the
sum may be 190?
Sn = 190, n = ? : a = 1, d = 4
[2 (n 1)4] 190
2
n
+ - =
(4n 2) 190
2
n
- =
n(4n – 2) = 380
4n2 – 2n – 380 = 0
2n2 – n – 190 = 0
2n2 – 20n + 19n – 190 = 0
2n (n – 10) + 19(n – 10) = 0
(n – 10) (2n + 19) = 0
n = 10 or
2
-19
is invalid . n = 10
8. If a man can save Rs.5 more every year than he did the year before and if he
saves 25 rupees in the first year after how many years will his savings be more than
1000 rupees altogether and what will be the exact sum with him?
‘a’ = 25
‘d’ = 5
[2a (n 1)d] 1000
2
n
+ - =
n 9n 400
5n 45n 2000
(5n 45) 1000
2
n
[50 (n 1)5] 1000
2
n
2
2
? + =
? + =
? + =
? + - =
n2 + 9n – 400 = 0
n2 + 25n – 16n – 400 = 0
n(n + 25) – 16 (n + 25) = 0
(n – 16)(n + 25) = 0
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n = 16
After 16 years, the man will have savings of Rs.1000/- with him.
9. How many terms of the series 5 + 7 + 9 + …… must be taken in order that the
sum may be 480?
(2n 8) n(n 4)
2
n
[10 (n 1)2]
2
n
480 = + - = + = +
n2 + 4n – 480 = 0
(n + 24) (n – 20) = 0
n = 20 ; n = -24 is invalid
10. Find the sum to infinity of the terms 9 – 6 + 4 - ………. 8
Here ‘a’ = 9 ; r =
3
2
- |r| < 1
5
27
3
5
9
3
2
1
9
1 r
a
S = =
+
=
-
8 =
11. Find the G.P. whose sum to ‘8’ is
2
9
and whose 2nd term is –2.
Let ‘a’ be the first term and ‘r’ the common ratio
Given ar = -2 and
2
9
1 r
a
=
-
2
9
1 r
r
2
and
r
2
a =
-
-
= -
2
9
r(r 1)
2
=
-
9r 2 – 9r = 4
9r 2 – 9r –4 = 0
9r 2 – 12r + 3r – 4 = 0
3r (3r – 4) + 1(3r – 4) = 0
(3r – 4) (3r + 1) = 0
r = 4/3 or –1/3
2
3
4
6
a = - = - or a = 6
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3
4
;r
2
3
a = - = is invalid, Hence a = 6, r =
3
1
-
The series will be 6, -2,
9
2
,
3
2
- ………
12. If ‘A’ be the sum of ‘n’ terms of the series ....
16
1
4
1
1 + + + and ‘B’ is the sum of
‘2n’ terms of the series .....
4
1
2
1
1 + + + find the value of
B
A
(i) .......
16
1
4
1
1 + + +
‘a’ = 1, r =
4
1
??
?
??
?
-
? ?
?
?
? ?
?
?
- ??
?
??
?
= =
1
4
1
1
4
1
1
S A
n
n
(ii) .....
4
1
2
1
1 + + +
‘a’ = 1 ; ‘r’ =
2
1
1
4
1
1
4
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
B
A
B
1
2
1
1
2
1
S
2n n
2n
2n
-
- ??
?
??
?
-
? ?
?
?
? ?
?
?
- ??
?
??
?
=
=
-
? ?
?
?
? ?
?
?
- ??
?
??
?
=
=
2
3
2
4
3
1
4
1
4
3
2
1
1
4
1
n
n
= × =
? ?
?
?
? ?
?
?
- ??
?
??
?
??
?
??
? -
×
??
?
?? ?
-
? ?
?
?
? ?
?
?
- ??
?
??
?
13. The interior angles of a polygon are in A.P. The smallest angle is 114° and the
common difference is 6°. How many sides are there in the polygon?
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Here ‘a’ = 114°, ‘d’ = 6°
= [2a + (n - 1)d] = (2n - 4) × 90°
2
n
Sn
[228 + (n - 1)6] = (2n - 4) × 90°
2
n
+ = (2n - 4) × 90°
2
n
(6n 222)
n(3n + 111) = (2n – 4) 90°
3n2 + 111n = 180n – 360
3n2 – 69n + 360 = 0
n2 – 23n + 120 = 0
n(n – 15) – 8(n – 15) = 0
(n – 15)(n – 8) = 0
n = 8 or 15
The minimum number of sides of the polygon = 8
Note: Sum of the interior angle of a polygon = (2n – 4) × 90°
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Percentages, Profit and Loss
Percentages
1.
100
x
x% =
2. x% of y =
100
xy
3. y% of x =
100
yx
4. x% of y = y% of x
5. x = p% of y ?
p
100x
y
100
py
x = ? =
%
x
100
p
100x
?y = × of x or
p
100
y
2
= of x.
Problems:
1. 35% of a number is 175. What % of 175 is the number?
Sol.
Let ‘x’ be the number
500
35
100
x 175
x 175
100
35
? = × =
× =
? Required percentage 100 285.71%
175
500
= × =
2. Find the value of %
2
12 1 of Rs.800.
Sol.
%
2
12 1 of 800 rupees
12.5 8 100rupees
800
100
2
1
12
= × =
= ×
3. What is the number whose 30% is 150
Sol.
Let x be the number whose 30% is 150
500
30
150 100
x
x 150
100
30
=
×
? =
? × =
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4. A man’s wages were reduced by 40%. Again, the reduced wages were increased by
40%. Find the percentage decrease in his original wages.
Sol.
Assume the initial wages to be Rs.100/-
Then wages after reduction of 40% = Rs.60
After 40% increase on the reduced wages, new wages = 60 Rs.84
100
140
× =
Percentage of decrease on his initial wages = 100 – 84 = 16%
5. An Engineering student has to secure 45% marks for a pass. He gets 153 marks and
fails by 27 marks. Find the maximum marks.
Sol.
Passing marks = 153 + 27 = 180
If passing mark is at 45, total marks must be 100. Since 180 is the passing mark,
max.marks = 400
45
180 100
=
×
marks.
6. 2 litres of water evaporated from 6 litres of sugar solution containing 5% sugar,
what will be the percentage of sugar in the remaining solution.
Sol.
6 litres of sugar solution contains 5% of sugar
? Sugar content 0.3
100
30
100
5
= 6 × = = lts.
After evaporating 2 litres from the solution, in the remaining 4 litres of solution, the
percentage of sugar content =
4
0.3 ×100 = 7.5
7.Anand gets 15% more marks than Arun. What % of marks does Arun get less than
Anand?
Sol.
Let us assume, Arun gets 100 marks. Anand gets 115 marks
In comparison to Anand, the % of marks Arun gets less than Anand
13.04%
115
15 100
=
×
=
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8. In a town, 30% are illiterate and 70% are poor. Among the rich 10% are illiterate.
What % of the population of poor people is illiterate?
Sol.
First assume the number of people to be 100
No. of illiterate = 30% of 100 = 30
No. of poor people = 70% of 100 = 70
No. of rich people = 100 – 70 = 30
No. of rich illiterate = 10% of 30 3
100
10 30
=
×
=
No. of poor illiterate = 30 – 3 = 27
% of poor illiterate = %
7
4
38
7
270
70
27 100
= =
×
=
9. Two numbers are respectively 40% and 50% more than the third number. What
percentage of the 2nd number is the first number?
Sol.
First, assume the third number to be 100
?First number = 140
Second number = 150
?Percentage of the first number to the second number %
3
1
93
3
280
100
150
140
= × = =
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10. There are 728 students in a school, 162 come to the school by bus, 384 on bicycles
and the rest by walk. What percentage of students comes to the school by walk?
Sol.
Total number of students in the school = 728
Number of students who come by bus = 162
Number of students who come on bicycle = 384
Adding these two, we get 546.
728 – 546 = 182 students come by walk.
% of students who come by walk to the school 100 25%
4
1
100
728
182
= × = × =
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Profit and Loss
1. Profit = S.P – C.P Where S.P = Selling Price
a. C.P = Cost Price
2. Loss = C.P – S.P
3. Profit percentage =
C.P
100 × ActualProfit
4. Loss percentage =
C.P
100 × Actual Loss
5. C.P
100
100 Profit%
SP ×
+
= or C.P
100
100 Loss%
SP ×
-
=
6. SP
100 Profit%
100
CP ×
+
= or SP
100 Loss%
100
SP ×
-
=
7. Two successive discounts of m% and n% on the listed price < (m + n)% of the listed
price(see (7) and (8) below).
8. Sale price after first discount of m% = List price ??
?
??
× ? -
100
m
1
9. Sale price after two discounts of m% and n% = List price ??
?
??
? - ?? ?
??
? -
100
n
1
100
m
1
Some important points to remember:
1. If m% and n% are two consecutive discounts on a scale, then the equivalent single
discount = %
100
mn
n m ??
?
??
? + -
2. If m%, n% and p% be three consecutive discounts, then the single equivalent
discount = ( )( )( ) %
100 100
100 100 m 100 n 100 p
??
?
??
?
×
- - - -
3. S.P = M.P ??
?
??
? -
100
100 rate of discount
where M.P- Marked Price, S.P- Selling Price
4. M.P =
100 rate of discount
100 S.P
-
×
PROBLEMS:
1. Mr. A buys an article for Rs.350 and sells to Rs.420, find his percentage profit.
C.P = Rs.350
S.P = Rs.420
Profit on C.P = 420 – 350 = 70
?% profit on C.P = 100 20%
350
70
× =
2. If Mr. A sold an article to Mr. B at a profit of 6% who in turn sold it to Mr. C at a loss
of 5%. If Mr. C paid Rs.2014 for the article, find the C.P. of the article for Mr. A
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Let the C.P of the article for Mr. A be Rs.100, say
C.P of the article for Mr. B = 106
C.P of the article for Mr. C =
100
95
106 × = 100.70 rupees
If Rs.100.70 is the amount paid by Mr.C to Mr. B, the C.P for Mr.A = 100
Since Mr.C paid Rs.2014 for the article, C.P of the article for Mr.A =
Rs.2000
100.70
2014 100
=
×
3. The owner of a restaurant started with an initial investment of Rs.32,000. In the
first year of operation, he incurred a loss of 5%. However, during the second and
the third years of operation, he made a profit of 10% and 12.5% respectively. What
is his net profit for the entire period of three years? Assume that profit or loss are
added or deducted from investment.
Sol.
Investment = Rs.32000
5% Loss (I year) = 32000 1600
100
5
× =
Remaining investment during the 2nd year = 32000 – 1600 = 30400
10% profit (2nd year) = 3040
100
10
30400 × =
Investment for 3rd year = 30400 + 3040 = 33440
%
2
12 1 profit (3rd year)
100
2
1
12
= 33440 ×
Net amount on hand after the 3rd year = 33440 + 4180 = 37620
Total profit gained = 37620 – 32000 = 5620 rupees
?Profit on investment 100 17.56%
32000
5620
× =
4. A fruit seller sells mangoes at the rate of Rs.50 for 10 mangoes. For getting a profit
of 60%, how many mangoes he would have purchased for Rs.50?
S.P of 10 mangoes = Rs.50
Profit % = 60%
C.P of 10 mangoes =
100 P
S.P 100
+
×
31.25
16
500
160
50 100
= =
×
=
For Rs.31.25, he bought 10 mangoes
For 50 rupees he bought
31.25
50 × 10
= 16 mangoes
?He would have bought 16 mangoes for 50 rupees and sold at 10 mangoes
for Rs.50 to earn a profit of 60%
5. If a shopkeeper sells an item for Rs.141, he loses 6%. In order to gain 10%, to
what price he should sell?
S.P = Rs.141
Loss = 6%
C.P = 150
94
141 100
100 Loss
S.P 100
=
×
=
-
×
Now, C.P = 150
P-profit = 10%
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S.P = ( )
100
C.P 100 + P
.165
100
150 110 = Rs
×
=
?He should sell the item for Rs.165 in order to get a profit of 10%
6. A merchant made a profit of g% by selling an article at a certain price. Had he sold it
at two thirds of that price, he would have incurred a loss of 20%. Find ‘g’.
Let the C.P of the article be 100 rupees
S.P of the article = (100+g)
Had he sold it to 2/3 of the S.P of the S.P = ( )
3
2 100 + g
, his loss would be
20%
?Keeping, S.P ( )
3
2 100 + g
=
Loss % = 20%
C.P =
100 Loss
S.P 100
-
×
=
( )
( ) (100 g) 100,
80
100
3
2
100 20
100
3
2 100 g
= × + =
-
×
+
the assumed
C.P
? 120
2 100
100 3 80
100 g =
×
× ×
+ =
g = 120 – 100 = 20%
?g = 20%
7. Raju sold a fan at a loss of 7%. Had he sold it for Rs.48 more, he would have gained
5%, what was the original selling price of the fan?
Sol.
Let S.P = Rs.x/- say
loss = 7%
C.P = .....(1)
93
100x
If S.P = x + 48, P = 5%, ( ) ( )......(2)
21
20 x 48
105
x 48 100
C.P
+
=
+ ×
? =
Equating (1) and (2), we get ( )
93
100x
21
20 x 48
=
+
? 1860(x + 48) = 2100x
? 1860x + 48 × 1860 = 2100x
?240x = 48 × 1860
Rs.372
240
48 1860
x =
×
=
?Rs. 372 was his original S.P
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8. A trader sells two steel chairs for Rs.500 each. On one, he claims to have made a
profit of 25% and on the other, he says he has lost 20%. How much does he gain or
lose in the total transaction.
Sol.
S.P of first steel chair = Rs.500
Profit = 25%
C.P = 400
125
500 100
=
×
S.P of the 2nd steel chair = 500
Loss incurred = 20%
C.P of chair = 625
80
500 100
=
×
Total C.P of both the chairs = 1025 rupees
Total S.P of both the chairs = 1000 rupees
Net Loss = 25 rupees
Loss % = 100 2.44%
1025
25
× = approx
9. A dealer buys a table listed at Rs.500/- and gets successive discounts of 20% and
10% respectively. He spends Rs.15 on transportation and sells it at a profit of 25%.
Find the S.P of the table.
List price = Rs.500
Single equivalent discount of two successive discounts of 20% and 10% =
%
100
20 10
10 20 ??
?
??
? ×
+ - = 30 –2 = 28%
Price for which the table was bought after two successive discounts =
360
100
72
500 × =
Selling price of the table at 25% profit Rs.450
100
125
= 360 × =
10. A man bought 11 oranges for 7 rupees and sold 7 oranges for 11 rupees. Find his
profit percentage.
C.P of 11 oranges = 7 rupees.
C.P of 1 orange =
11
7
rupees
S.P of 7 oranges = 11 rupees
S.P of 1 orange =
7
11
rupees
Profit =
77
72
77
121 49
11
7
7
11
=
-
- =
Profit % = 100 146.938%
7
11
77
72
100
7 /11
72 / 77
× = × × =
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DISCOUNT
Discount is of two types:
1. True Discount
2. Bankers Discount
True Discount:
The amount deducted from the bill for cash payment is called discount.
We know that Rs.100 invested today amounts to Rs.136 (SI) at the rate of
12% in 3 years.
We use the following terminology
Present Value or Present worth = P.V = Rs.100
Rate R = 12%
Period T = 3 yrs
Amount A = 136
True Discount = T.D = 136 – 100 = Rs 36
Here we pay Rs.100 and clear off a loan which will be Rs.136 after 3 years.
(Prepayment)
List of Formulae : (S.I = Simple Interest or Amount)
1.
100 RT
100A
P.V
+
=
2.
100
(P.V).RT
T.D =
3.
100 RT
ART
T.D
+
=
4.
S.I T.D
S.I T.D
A
-
×
=
5. S.I on T.D = B.D – T.D
In the case of C.I,
6. T
100
R
1
A
P.V.
??
?
??
?
+
=
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EXAMPLES:
1. The true discount on a certain sum of money due 3 year hence is Rs.100 and the
S.I. on the same sum for the same time and at the same rate is Rs.120. Find
the sum and the rate percent.
Sum ? Amount
S.I T.D
S.I T.D
A
-
×
= = Rs.600
20
120 100
=
×
Rate = %
3
2
6
600 3
100 120
=
×
×
2. The true-discount on Rs.2480 due after a certain period at 5% is Rs.80. Find the
due period.
P.V = A – (T.D)
= 2480 – 80 = Rs.2400
On using eq(2),
Time = 8
2400 5
100 80
(P.V) R
100(T.D)
=
×
×
=
×
months.
3. Which is a better offer out of (i) a cash payment now of Rs.8100 or (ii) a credit
of Rs.8250 after 6 months %
2
1
(6 S.I.)
A = 8250
T =
2
1
yr
R =
2
1
6
Rs.8000
100 RT
100A
PV =
+
=
Cash payment of Rs.8100 is better by Rs.100.
4. The present value of a bill due at the end of 2 years is Rs.1250. If the bill were
due at the end of 2 years and 11 months, its present worth would be Rs.1200.
Find the rate of interest and the sum.
100 R
100A
PV
+
=
Case (i):
100 2R
100A
1250
+
= --------- (1)
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Case (ii):
R
12
35
100
100A
1200
+
= ---------- (2)
(2) ÷ (1) gives
??
?
??
?
=
+
+
=
25
24
LHS
R
12
35
100
100 2R
1200
1250
R = 5%
Using in equation (1), A = Rs.1375
5. In what time a debt of Rs.7920 due may be cleared by immediate cash down
payment of Rs.3600 at %
2
1 per month?
%
2
1 per month ? 6% p.a.
A = Rs.7920
P.V = 3600
R = 6%
T =?
Using Equation (1)
T = 20 years
6. What is the true discount on a bill of Rs.2916 due in 3 years hence at 8% C.I.?
(1 ) 100
. i R
i
PV A T =
+
=
= Rs. 2314(approx)
T.D = A – PV = Rs.602
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Bankers Discount:
The bankers discount (B.D) is the SI on the face value for a period from the
date on which the bill was discounted and the legally due date.
The money paid by the banker to the bill holder is called the discountable
value.
The difference between the banker’s discount and the true discount for the
unexpired time is called the Banker’s Gain (B.G).
Explanation:
A and B are two traders. A owes Rs.5000 to B and agrees to pay it after 4
months. B prepares a document called Bill of Exchange. A accepts it and orders his
bank to pay Rs.5000 after 4 months with three days of grace period. This date is
called legally due date and on that day B can present the draft for withdrawal of
Rs.5000 and this Rs 5000 is called the Face Value (F.V).
Let 5th May be the legally due date for B. Suppose that B wants money
before 5th May say on 3rd March. In such case, B sells the bill (draft) to the Bank.
Bank accepts it and in order to gain some profit, the Bank charges B with SI on the
face value for unexpired time i.e. from 3rd March to 8th May. This deduction is known
as Banker’s Discount.
Remark:
When the days of the bill are not given, grace days are not to be added.
List of Formulae:
1. B.D = S.I on the bill for the unexpired time.
2. B.G = B.D – T.D
3. B.G = S.I on T.D
4.
100
ART
B.D =
5.
100 RT
ART
T.D
+
=
6.
RT
(B.G) 100
T.D
×
=
7.
(B.D) (T.D)
(B.D)(T.D)
A
-
=
8. T.D = (P.V) × (B.G)
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EXAMPLES:
1. If the true discount on a certain sum due 6 months hence at 6% is Rs.40, find
the B.D on the same sum for the same time and at the same rate.
B.G = S.I on T.D = 6 1.20
2
1
100
40
× × =
B.D – T.D = 1.20
B.D = T.D + 1.20 = 40 + 1.20 = Rs.41.20
2. What rate percent does a person get for his money, if he discounts a bill due in
8 months hence on deducting 10% of the amount of the bill?
For Rs.100, deduction is 10.
Money received by the bill holder = Rs.90
Further
SI on Rs.90 for 8 months = 10
Rate = %
3
2
16
6
100
90 2
100 10 3
PT
SI 100
= =
×
× ×
=
×
3. Find the bankers gain on a bill of Rs.6900 due 3 years hence at 5% p.a. S.I.
Rs.1035
100
sum R T
B.D =
× ×
=
Rs.900
100 (R T)
sum R T
T.D =
+ ×
× ×
=
BG = B.D – T.D = Rs.135
4. The banker's discount on a certain amount due 8 months hence is
23
3
of the B.D
on it for the same time and at the same rate. Find the rate percent.
If B.G = Rs.1 then B.D. =
3
23
T.D = B.D – B.G = Rs.
3
20
Amount =
9
460
Rs
(B.D) (T.D)
(B.D) (T.D)
=
-
×
P = 460; T =
3
2
; S.I =
3
23
; R =?
R = %
2
5
P.T
S.I 100
=
×
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5. The present value of a certain bill due some time hence is Rs.1600 and the
discount on the bill is Rs.160. Find the banker’s discount.
From equation (8)
Rs.16
1600
160 160
P.V
(T.D)
B.G
2
=
×
= =
B.D = B.G + T.D
= 16 + 160
= Rs.176
RACES AND GAMES OF SKILL
Race: A contest of speed in running, riding, driving, sailing or rowing is called a
race.
Dead-heat race: If all the persons contesting a race reach the goal at the same
time, then it is called a dead-heat race.
Games: ‘A game of 100’ means that the person among the contestants who scores
100 points first. He is called winner.
If A scores 100 points and B scores 80 points, there we use the phrase ‘A
gives B 20 points’
Examples:
1. A can run a km in 3 min and 54 sec and B can run the same distance in 4 min
and 20 sec. By what distance can A beat B?
A beats B by 26 sec.
Distance covered by B is 260 sec = 1000 mtrs
Distance covered by B is 26 sec = 26 100
260
1000
× = mtrs.
A beats B by 100 mtrs.
2. A and B run a km and A wins by 1 min.
A and C run a km and A wins by 375 mtrs.
B and C run a km and B wins by 30 sec
Find the time taken by B to run a km.
A beats B by 60 sec
B beats C by 30 sec
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Hence A beats C by 90 secs. But we are given that A beats C by 375 mtrs. ie. C
covers 375 mtrs in 90 sec.
Hence, Time taken by C to cover 1 km = 1000 240
375
90
× = sec
Time taken by B to cover 1 km = 240 – 30 = 210 secs.
3. In a race A has a start of 100 mtrs and sets off 6 min before B, at the rate of 10
km/hr. How soon will B overtake A, if his speed of running is 12 km/hr.
Speed of A =
60
10
Distance run by A is 6 min = 6 1000
60
10
× = mtrs.
A has a start of 1000 + 100 = 1100 mtrs. In order to over take A, B should gain
1100 mtrs. But B gains 2000 mtrs in 60 min.
The time taken by B to gain 1100 mtrs. = 1100 33
2000
60
× = min.
4. A can walk 3 km while B walks 5 kms.
C can walk 6 km while A walks 3.5 km
What start can C give B in a 3 km work?
C walks 6 km while A walk 3.5
If A walks 3 km, then C walks =
7
36
3.5 3
6
=
×
km
When if C walks
7
36 km, then B walks 5 km
If C walks 3 km, then B walks = km
12
35
3
36
5 7
× =
×
C should give B a start of km
12
35
3 ??
?
??
? - i.e.
12
1
of a km.
5. In a game of billiards, A can give B 10 points in 60 and he can give C 15 in 60.
How many can B give C in a game of 90?
If A scores 60 points, then B scores 50
If A scores 60 points, then C scores 45
When B scores 50 points, C scores 45. When B scores 90 points
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C scores = 90 81
50
45
× = points.
Thus B can give C 9 points in a game of 90 points.
6. In a game, A can give B 20 points and C 32 points, B can give C 15 points. How
many points make the game?
Let A score x points
Score of B = x – 20
If B scores x points, then score of C = x- 15
When B scores (x – 20) points,
C scores (x 20)
x
(x 15)
× -
-
points.
x 32
x
(x 15)(x 20)
= -
- -
x = 100
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SIMPLE INTEREST AND COMPOUND
INTEREST
NOTATIONS:
P – Principal, A = Amount, I = Interest, T = Time, R = Rate of interest per
annum.
FORMULAE:
1. A = P + I
2.
100
PTR
I =
3.
PR
100I
T =
4.
RT
100I
P =
5.
PT
100I
R =
COMPOUND INTEREST
Nomenclature: A – Amount (Compounded)
P – Principal
R – Rate of interest per annum
N – Number of years or Number of periods
C.I – Compound Interest
Formulae:
T
100
R
1 P A ??
?
??
?
= + = Compounded Amount
CI = A – P
PROBLEMS:
1. The difference between the SI and CI on a sum of money at 4% per annum for 2
yrs is 45. Find the sum.
Method 1:
Reqd. Sum =
2
R
100
D ??
?
??
?
×
Where D is the difference between S.I. and C.I. and R = Rate Percent
D = 45 rupees
R = 4%
Sum = 28125
4
100
45
2
= ??
?
??
× ? rupees.
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Note: When ‘d’ is the difference between the CI and the SI in 3 years and R is the
rate percent, then the sum invested is given by
R (300 R)
d(100)
Sum 2
3
+
=
2. If the compound interest on a certain sum for 2 years at 5% p.a. is 92 rupees.
What would be the simple interest at the same rate for 2 years?
Method:
100
R
2
2 CI
SI
+
×
= (formula)
89.75
2.05
184
100
5
2
2 92
SI = =
+
×
=
3. A man took a loan of Rs.5000, which is to be paid in three equal yearly
installments. If the rate of interest is 10% per annum CI. Find the value of each
installment.
Method:
Formula: Value of each installment = 2 3
100 R
100
100 R
100
100 R
100
Principal
??
?
??
?
+
+ ??
?
??
?
+
+
+
Where ‘R’ is the rate percent
P = 5000 rupees
R = 10%
Let ‘x’ be the value of each installment
2010.57
10(121 110 100)
55000 121
121
100
11
10
10 1
5000 11
11
10
11
10
11
10
5000
110
100
110
100
110
100
5000
x 2 3 2 3 =
+ +
×
=
??
?
??
? + +
×
=
??
?
??
+ ? ???
??
+ ?
=
??
?
??
+ ? ??
?
??
+ ?
=
4. What rate of C.I for a sum of Rs.6000 will amount to Rs.6720 in 2 years if the
interest is calculated every year?
Method:
Formula: Rate% = 1 100
P
A N
1
×
? ? ?
?
?
? ? ?
?
?
- ??
?
??
?
Where P = Principal; A = Amount; N = Period or no. of years.
Rate% = 1 100 5.83
6000
6720 2
1
× =
? ? ?
?
?
? ? ?
?
?
- ??
?
?? ?
%
5. A sum of money is doubled in 3 years at C.I. compounded annually. In how many
years will it become 4 times?
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Method:
(Formula) Time =
loga
Tlogb
Where T = Time, No. of years
‘a’ = Doubled or 2 times
‘b’ = 4 times
T = 3; ‘a’ = 2; ‘b’ = 4
Time = 6
log2
3log 4
= years.
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Annuity
• An annuity is a fixed sum paid at regular intervals under certain conditions.
The interval may be an year or half year or quarter year.
• If nothing is mentioned, we take it as one year.
• An annuity payable for a fixed number of years is called annuity certain.
• If the annuity continues forever, then it is called perpetuity.
• If the amounts are paid at the end of each period, then it is called immediate
annuity. If the payments are made at the beginning of each period, then it is
called annuity due.
• An annuity is called a deferred annuity if the payments are deferred or
delayed for a certain number of years.
• When an annuity is deferred by n years, it is said to commence after n years
and the first installment in paid at the end of (n + 1) years.
• Present value of an annuity is the sum of the present values of all the
payments.
• A freehold estate is one which yields a perpetual annuity called rent.
Remark:
In annuity the interest payable will be always compound interest.
Formulae:
1. The amount A of an annuity (or immediate annuity) P left unpaid for n years is
( ) ?? ?
?? ?
= 1 + i n - 1
i
p
A where
100
Rate
i =
2. The present value V of an annuity p to continue for n years is ( ) ?? ?
?? ?
= 1 - 1 + i - n
i
p
V
3. The present value of a perpetuity is
i
p
V =
Remark:
The problems under annuity involve (1 + i)n. To compute this one needs logarithm
tables or calculator (the second is not available in the examination).
If (1 + i)n is given in a simple way, one can attempt a problem easily.
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Examples:
1. ‘x’ decides to deposit Rs.500 at the end of every year in a bank which gives 8%
p.a. C.I. If the installments are allowed to accumulate, what amount he will
receive at the end of 7 years?
( ) ?? ?
?? ?
= 1 + i n - 1
i
p
A
Here P = 500, I = 0.08, n = 7 years
(1 + i)n = (1 + 0.8)7 = 1.713
[1.713 1] Rs.4456.25
0.08
500
A = - =
2. What is the present value of an annuity of Rs.5000 for 4 years at 5%. C.I?
p = 5000; i = 0.05; (1 + i)n = 0.8226
V = 100000 [1 – 0.8226]
= Rs. 17740
( ) ?? ?
?? ?
= 1 - 1 + i - n
i
p
V
3. A person desires to create an endowment fund to provide a prize of Rs.500 every
year. If the fund can be invested at 10% p.a. C.I, find the amount of the
endowment?
The endowment amount is the present value V of the perpetuity of Rs.500.
i
p
V =
P = 500 ;
10
1
i = ; V = Rs.5000
4. The rent (annual) for a freehold estate is Rs.100000. If the C.I rate is 5% p.a.,
what is the current value?
A freehold estate enjoys a rent in perpetuity
i
p
V =
P = 100000
© ENTRAN
100
5
i =
( ) Rs.2000000
5
100
100000
100
5
100000
v = = × =
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5. A person invests a certain amount every year in a company, which pays 10% p.a.
C.I. If the amount standing in his credit at the end of the tenth year is
Rs.15,940, find the investment made every year.
P = P; I = 0.1; A = 15940; (1 + i)n = 2.594
( ) ?? ?
?? ?
= 1 + i n - 1
i
p
A
[2.594 1]
0.1
p
15940 = -
P = Rs.1000.
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Permutations and Combinations
1. Permutations:
The ways in which a number of given objects can be arranged by taking all of
them or a specified number of objects out of them are called PERMUTATIONS.
Thus the number of permutations of three objects, viz. a, b, and c, taking all of
them at a time is 6 i.e., abc, acb, bcd, bac, cab and cba.
The number of ways in which 2 objects can be taken and arranged out of 3
objects a, b and c is 6, viz. ab, ba, bc, cb, ac and ca.
The number of permutations of r things our of n things is denoted by npr.
Formula for nPr:
1. nPr = n(n-1) (n-2) ……(1)
n(n-1) (n-2) …….1 is denoted by n . It may be noted that O=1
2. O=1
3. nPr =
n - r
n
or n(n-1)(n-2)……(n-r+1)
Example: 10P4
6
10
or 10 × 9 × 8 × 73
4. The number of ways in which n objects can be arranged in a circle is n - 1
1. Combinations:
The ways in which a specified number of objects can be taken out of a given
number of objects (without regard to their arrangements) are called
Combinations. The symbol nCr denotes the number of combinations or r
things out of n things. Thus, for example the number of combinations of 2
objects out of three given objects a, b and c is 3, viz. ab, ca, bc.
Formula for nCr:
nCr =
rn r
n
-
=
1 2 3....r
n(n 1)(n 2)......(n r 1)
× ×
- - - +
Example 10C4 =
1 2 3 4
10 9 8 7
× × ×
× × ×
Other important formulas:
1. nCr =
r
nPr
2. nCr = nCn-r
3. nCr + nCr-1 = (n+1)Cr
4. nC0 + nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ….. nCn = 2 n
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PROBABILITY
Definition:
Probability is the ratio of the number of favourable cases to the total of
equally likely cases.
Thus, if a uniform coin is tossed, the probability (or chance) of getting a head
is ½ as there are two equally likely events viz., getting a head or tail.
If the probability of an event happening is p, the probability of the event not
happening is 1-p.
Probability always lies between 0 and 1, i.e. 0 = p = 1.
The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment is called sample space(s).
The event specified is a subject of the sample space and is denoted by (E).
Probability of an event is
n(S)
n(E)
P(E) = *
Mutually exclusive Events:
Two events are mutually exclusive if the occurrence of the one excluded the
simultaneous occurrence of the other. For example, if a coin is thrown, getting a
head and getting a tail are mutually exclusive.
Independent Events:
Two events are independent if the occurrence or non-occurrence of the one
does not affect the other.
Example:
If two dice are thrown simultaneously, the number that one die shows and
the number that the other die shows are independent events.
Addition of probabilities:
In two events A and B are mutually exclusive, then the probability of A or B
happening is equal to the sum of the probability of A occurring and the probability of
B occurring i.e., P(A or B) =P(A) + P(B). This holds good for three or more mutually
exclusive events.
If two events are not mutually exclusive, the probability of occurrence of A or
B is P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B).
Multiplication of Probabilities:
If two events are independent the probability that both will occur is the
product of their individual probabilities i.e.,
P(A and B) = P(A) x P(B)
This can be extended to three or more independent events A, B, C …… etc.
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Conditional Probability:
If the occurrence of an event is related to the occurrence of another event,
the occurrence of both events simultaneously is called a dependent compound event.
The notation P(A n B) or simply P(AB) is used to denote the probability of the
joint occurrence of the events A and B. If the events are independent P(AB) = P(A) x
P(B)
When events A and B are not independent.
P(AB) = P(A)
B
P(A)
P(B)
A
P(B)
=
The probability of occurrence of the event B when it is known that event A
has already occurred is called conditional Probability of B and is given by
n(A)
n(A B)
(A)
(B)
P
n
= .
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CLOCKS AND CALENDAR
1. Clocks:
(i) The minute hand (M.H) passes over 60 minute spaces (M.S) in 1 hour.
(ii) The hour hand (H.H) goes over 5 minute spaces (M.S) in 1 hour.
(iii) The minute hand (M.H) takes 60 minutes to gain 55 minute spaces (M.S) over
the hour hand (H.H)
(iv) To gain 1 M.S over the H.H., it takes
55
60
min or
11
12
min for the minute hand
2. In every hour:
(i) The hands coincide once
(ii) The hands are straight (pointing in opposite directions) once. In this position,
the hands are 30 minute spaces (M.S) apart.
(iii) The hands are twice at right angles. In this position the hands are 15-minute
spaces apart.
(iv) The minute hand moves through 6° in each minute whereas the hour hand
moves through ½° in each minute.
3. In a day, i.e., in 24 hours:
(i) The hands coincide 11 times in every 12 hours (Since, between 11 and 1
o’clock, there is a common position 12 o’clock when the hands coincide.
Hence 22 times in 24 hours
(ii) The hands point towards exactly opposite directions 11 times in 12 hours
(between 6 and 7, there is a common position 6 o’clock, when the hands are
straight). Hence 22 times in 24 hours.
(iii) The hands of a clock are at right angles twice every hour, but in 12 hours,
they are at right angles 22 times and thus 44 times in a day. There are two
positions common in every 12 hours, one at 3 o’clock and again at 9 o’clock.
(iv) Any relative position of the hands of a clock is repeated 11 times in every 12
hours.
(v) The hands are straight (coincide or in opposite directions) 44 times in 48
hours.
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CALENDAR:
(i) Leap year is a multiple of ‘4’
Leap year has 29 days for February
Normal year has 28 days for February
Leap year: 366 days, 52 weeks + 2 odd days
Non-Leap year: 365 days, 52 weeks + 1 odd day
?For each leap year, the day of the week advances by two for a date.
For a non-leap year, the weekday of a specific date will increase by one in the next
year.
(ii) 100 years = 76 ordinary years + 24 leap years
= 76 odd days + 24 × 2 odd days = 124 odd days
= 17 weeks + 5 days
?100 years contain 5 odd days
(iii) 200 years contain 3 odd days
(iv) 300 years contain 1 odd day
(v) First January A.D. was Monday. Therefore, we must count days from Sunday,
i.e. Sunday for ‘0’ odd day. Monday for 1 odd day. Tuesday for 2 odd days
and so on
(vi) Last day of a century cannot be a Tuesday, Thursday or Saturday
(vii) The first day of a century must be a Monday, Tuesday, Thursday or Saturday.
(viii) Century year is not a leap year unless it is a multiple of 400.
1. At what time between 4 and 5 will the hands of a watch
(a) Coincide (b) be at right angle (c) point in opposite direction?
Sol:
(a) At 4’o clock, the hands are 20 minutes apart. So, the minute hand
must gain 20 minutes before the hands coincide. Since the minute hand gains
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55 minutes in 60 minutes of time, to gain 20 minutes, the required time =
55
20
×60
=
11
9
21
11
240
= minutes.
? Both the hands coincide at
11
9
21 minutes past 4 o’ clock
(b) At 4’o clock, the hands are 20 minutes apart. They will be at right
angles. When there is a space of 15 minutes between them. This situation can
happen twice (i) when the minute hand has gained (20 – 15) = 5 minutes
(ii) When the minute hand has gained (20 + 15) = 35 minutes.
For the minute hand to gain 5 minutes, it taken
11
420
60
55
5
× =
=38
11
2
minutes
ie., 38
11
2
minutes past 4’o clock.
2. Two clocks begin to strike 12 together. One strikes in 33 seconds and the
other in 22 secs. What is the interval between the 6th stroke of the first
and the 8th stroke of the second?
Sol:
Since the first clocks strike 11 strokes in 33secs, the interval between
two consecutive strokes =
11
33
= 3 secs.
Similarly, the interval between two successive strokes of the other clock =
11
22
= 2 secs.
The 6 th stroke of the first clock occurs after 5 × 3 = 15 sec. and
the 8th stroke of the 2nd clock will come after 7 × 2 = 14 sec.
? The interval = 15 – 14 = 1 sec.
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3. Find the time between 3 and 4’o clock when the angle between the hands
of a watch is 30°.
Sol:
Case(i)
At 3’o clock, the hands are 15 minutes apart. Clearly, the M.H
must gain 10 minutes before the hands include an angle of 30°.
To gain 55 minutes, the M.H takes 60 minutes of time.
To gain 10 minutes, the M.H takes min
11
10
10
11
120
55
10 60
= =
×
?At
11
10
10 minutes past 3’o clock. The angle between the M.H and the H.H
will be 30°.
Case(ii)
When the M.H gains 20 minutes, the angle between the H.H
and the M.H becomes 30° again.
To gain 20 minutes by the M.H, the time consumed =
11
240
55
20 60
=
×
=
11
9
21 min.
? At
11
9
21 minutes past 3’o clock, the angle between the H.H and the M.H
will be once again 30°.
4. A watch which gains uniformly is 3 minutes slow at noon on a Sunday and
is 4 min. 48 secs. fast at 2p.m. on the following Sunday. When was it
correct?
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Sol:
From Sunday noon to the following Sunday at 2p.m, it is 7 days and 2
hours = 7×24+2 = 170 hours.
The watch gains 3 + 4 + min
5
4
or 7
60
48
7
60
48
= + in 170 hours.
In order to show the correct time, the watch must gain 3 minutes to equalize.
To gain 3 minutes, the time taken by the watch = 170
5
4
7
3
×
= 3 × 170
39
5
× hours
= 65.38 hours
65.38 hours = 2 days and 17 hours and 23 minutes.
? The watch shows correct time on Tuesday at 23 minutes past 5p.m.
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CALENDAR
Problems:
1. What day of the week was 20th June, 1837 A.D.?
Solution:
From 1AD, 1836 complete years + First 5 months of 1837 + 20 days of June = 20th
June1837 A.D.
First 1600 years give no odd days
Next 200 years give 3 odd days
Next 36 years give 3 odd days.
1836 years give 3 + 3 = 6 odd days
From 1st January to 20th June 1837, there are 3 odd days.
Total number of odd days = (6 + 3) or = 2 i.e. 2 odd days
It means, that the 20th June falls on the 2nd odd day commencing from Monday.
The required day was Tuesday.
i.e. 20th January, 1837 was a Tuesday.
Odd days during 1st January to 20th June
(January = 3 odd days
February = 0
March = 3
April = 2
May = 3
June = 6
Total = 17)
2. How many times the 29th of a month occur in 400 consecutive years?
Solution:
In 400 consecutive years, there are 97 leap years. Hence, in 400 consecutive years,
February has the 29th day occurring 97 times and in the remaining 11 months, the
number of times 29th day of a month occurs
= 400 × 11 = 4400 times
29th day of month occurs (4400 + 97) = 4497 times.
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Rule:
In the years 1 to100, there are 76 ordinary years + 24 leap years. (see (viii) above)
In the years 1 to400, there are (4 × 24 + 1) = 97 leap years, including the closing
year which is leap year. (see (viii) above)
3. Today is 3rd November. The day of the week is Monday. This is a leap year. What
will be the day of the week on this day after 3 years?
Solution:
This is a leap year
None of the next three years will be a leap year. Each year will give one odd day. So,
the day of the week will be 3 odd days beyond Monday i.e. it will be Thursday.
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MENSURATION
Areas of 2 dimensional Figures
SI.
No
Name of figure Figure Perimeter Areas Nomenclature
1 Triangle
a + b + c
2
1
ah
a, b, c – sides
h - altitude
2
Right Angled
triangle
a + b + c
2
1
ab
©
a, b, c sides,
c- Hypotenuse
b – base, aheight
3 Equilateral Triangle
3a a2
4
3
R-Equal side
H = a
2
3
-
altitude
4 Isosceles right
angled triangle
2a + b
2
1
a2 a – Equal sides
b - Hypotenuse
5 Rectangle
2 (l + b) lb l – length
b - breadth
6 Square
4a a2 a – Equal side
d – diagonal =
2a
7 Parallelogram 2( a + b) bh a, b – Adjacent
sides,
A
a b
h
B C
a
c
a
b
A
a a
B a C
A
a b
B a C
A
B
A
D
d
A
D
h a
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h – altitude
b - base
8 Rhombus
4a
2
1
d1d2
a – equal side
d1, d2 -
diagonals
9 Trapezium
D a
C
a
a
d d
Sum of
the four
sides
2
1
(a +
b)h
a, b – Parallel
sides
H - altitude
D b C
h
10 Quadrilateral
Sum of
the four
sides
2
1
d(h1 +
h2)
d – diagonal
AC.
h1, h2 –
altitudes of
?ADC and ABC
A a
A D
h1
h2 d
B
11 Circle
2pr or pd pr2 or
4
pd2
r – radius
d = 2r -
diameter
12 Semi-circle
pr or
2
pd
8
d
or
2
p r2 p 2
h
h
A
p(R2 – r2) r-Radius of
outer circle
13 Annulus of a ring
r – radius of
inner circle
r
o
R
14 Sector of a circle
l + 2r 2 ?° = ?AOB r
360
× p
?
2
360
l × p
?
=
or
2
lr
r – radius of
circle
l – length of
arc
O ?
r r
A
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1.The ratio of length of breadth of a room is 3:2 and its area is 216m2.
Find its length.
Solution:
Let ‘l’ and ‘b’ be the length and breadth of the room
l : b = 3 : 2
3
2l
b =
Given, lb = 216m2
? l. 216
3
2l =
? l2 = 216×
2
3 = 108×3
= 9×4×3×3
?l =3×2×3 = 18m.
2.The length of a room is 6m and the length is twice the breadth. If the area of the
floor is 162m2, find the area of the four walls of the room.
Solution:
Let l, b, h be the length, breadth and height of the room
respectively.
Given h= 6m. and l=2b.
Area of the floor =lb =162
2b2 = 162, since l=2b
b2 = 81
b = 9m, l =18m, h =6m.
Area of four walls= 2h(l + b)
= 2×6(18+9) = 12×27 = 324m2
3.The diagonal of a square field is 50m. Find the area of the field.
Solution:
Let ‘a’ be the side and ‘d’ be the diagonal of the square.
? 2 a = 50
a=
2
50 = 25 2
Area of the square = a2 = (25 2 )2 = 625×2 = 1250m2
4.The radii of two concentric circles are 8cm and 10cm. Find the area of the region
between them.
Solution:
Given, R= 10cm, and r = 8cm.
Area between the two circles = outer area – Inner area=
=p(R
pR2 - pr 2
2-r2)= p(R + r)(R -r)=p(10 + 8)(10 -8) = 18p × 2 = 36 ,
where p = 3.14 approx
pcm2
R O
A r
B
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5.find The number of students who can sit in a class room with length 20m and
breadth 9m, if each student requires a space of 90cm × 80m.
Number of students = Area of the room/ Area of space required for 1 student
=
90 80
20 100 9 100
×
× × ×
= 250 students.
6.A horse is placed for grazing inside a square field 12m long and is tethered
to one corner by a rope 8m long. Find the grazing area of the horse.
R Q
A
O B P
Solution:
The horse is tethered at 0
Given OP =OR = 12m= side of square.
Length of rope = OA =OB = 8m.
The horse can graze within the shaded region which is a sector of a
circle of radius = OA =8m and ?AOB =90°
Area of grazing = pr2
360
0
= p 82
360
90
× × = p 64
4
1
× = 16pm2
7.A man takes 7
2
1 min to walk along the diagonal of a square field at the rate of
2km/hr. find the area of the square field in m2.
Rate of walking = 2km/hr =
60
2 × 1000
m/min
Distance in
2
7 1 min = 250
60
2 1000
2
15
=
×
×
2 a = 250, where ‘a’ is side.
A=
2
250
= 125 2
Area of square = a2 = (125 2)2 = 31250
8. If the radius of a circle is tripled, its perimeter will become how many times of its
previous Circumference?
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Solution:
Let ‘r’ be the radius of the circle.
Circumference = 2pr
When radius is tripled, radius = 3r.
New Circumference = 2 × p × 3r = 3 × 2pr = 3 times its previous
Circumference.
9.An equilateral triangle of side 6cm has its corners cut off to form a regular
hexagon. Find the area of the hexagon.
Solution:
ABC is an equilateral triangle of side 6cm.
PQRSTU is a regular hexagon formed,
By cutting off 2cm on each corner on all the three sides.
The hexagon has a side equal to 2cm.
Area of hexagon = (side)2
4
6 3
× = 22
4
6 3
× =6 3 Cm2
10.The price of paint is Rs.100 per kg. A kilogram of paint covers 25sq.m. How much
will it cost to paint the inner walls and the ceiling of a room having 6 meters each
side?
Solution:
Area to be painted = Area of the 4 walls + area of the ceiling
=4a2 +a2 where a = 6m.
=5×6×6 = 180m2
Cost of painting = 100
25
area to bepainted
× rupees.
= 100
25
180
× = Rs.720
MENSURATION OF SOLIDS
1.If the total surface of a cube is 216cm2, find its volume
Solution:
Surface area = 6a2 = 216 ?a2 = 36
6
216
= . i.e. a =6
Volume of cube = a3 = 6×6×6 = 216m3
2.Two cones have their heights in the ratio 1:3 and the radii of their bases in the
ratio 3:1. Find the ratio of their volumes.
Solution:
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3
1
h
h
2
1 = and
1
3
r
r
2
1 =
h1 = h2
3
1
and r1 = 3r2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
pr h
3
1
pr h
3
1
V
V
= =
2
2
2
1
2
1
r h
r h
=
2
2
2
2 2
2
r h
3
h
(3r )
=
2
2
2
2
2
2
3r h
9r ×h
= 3: 1
V1: V2 = 3: 1
3.If the radius of base and height of a cone are increased by 10%, find the
percentage of increase of its volume.
Solution:
V1
= 1
2
pr1 h
3
1
Let r1 and h1 are increased by 10%
Let r2 and h2 be the new radius and height.
r2 = r1
100
110
=
10
11r1 and h2 =
100
110h1 =
10
11h1
V2 = 2
2
pr2 h
3
1 =
10
11h
10
11r
p
3
1 1
2
1??
?
??
?
× =
1000
121r 11h
p
3
1 1
2
1 ×
×
% Increase in volume = 100
V
V V
1
2 1 ×
-
= 100
pr h
3
1
pr h
3
1
pr h
3000
121 11
1
2
1
1
2
1 1
2
1
×
-
×
= 100
pr h
3
1
pr h
3
1
1
1000
121 11
1
2
1
1
2
1
×
??
?
??
?
-
×
= 100 33.1%
1000
331
× =
4.Two cylindrical buckets have their diameters in the ratio 3:1 and their heights are
as 1: 3. Find the ratio of their volumes.
Solution:
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
pr h
pr h
V
V
= , where
1
3
d
d
2
1 = and d1 = 3d2
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=
2
2
2
1
2
1
pd h
pd h
=
2
2
2
1
2
1
d h
d h
where, d1 = 2r1 and d2 = 2r2 are diameters
?
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
3d h
9d h
d h
3
h
3d
V
V
×
×
= = = 3 : 1
5. The rainwater from a flat rectangular roof. 5 metres by 6 metres, drains into a
tank 1m deep and of base 1.2m2. What amount of rainfall will fill the tank?
Solution:
Area of the rectangular roof = 5× 6 = 30m2
= 30×100×100cm2
Volume of the tank = 1×1.2 = 1.2m2 = 1.2×100×100×100cm3
Amount of rainfall =
Areaof rectangular roof
Volumeof water
=
30 100 100
1.2 100 100 100
× ×
× × ×
=
4cm
30
120 =
6. A cylindrical rod of iron, whose height is equal to its radius, is melted and cast into
spherical balls whose radius is half the radius of the rod. Find the number of balls.
Solution:
Let ‘r’ be the radius of the cylindrical rod.
?Its height = r
Volume of rod = pr2h = pr2×r = pr3
Volume of one spherical ball =
2
r
Volume of the spherical ball =
6
pr
8
r
p
3
4 3 3
=
Number of balls=
pr /6
rp
volumeof oneball
Volumeof rod
3
3
= = 6
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7.Find the ratio of the surfaces of the inscribed and circumscribed spheres about a
cube.
Solution:
Let ‘a’ be the side of the cube.
Radius of the inscribed sphere =
2
a
Radius of the circumscribed sphere
= Diagonal of cube
2
1 ×
= 2
2
1
× a =
2
a
4p(radius)2
4p(radius)2
Surface of the circumscribed sphere
Surface area of the inscribed sphere
= = 2
2
R
r
=
2
2
2
2
a
2
4
a
(a/ 2)
(a/2)
= × =
2
1
?Ratio of surface areas = 1: 2
8.The volume of a cuboid is 54cm3.Each side of its square base is
2
1 of its altitude.
Find the side of the base.
Solution:
Let ‘a’ be the side of the square base.
?Altitude of the cuboid = 2a.
Volume = Area of the base × Height
= a2 × 2a = 54
= 2a3 = 54
= a3 = 27
?a = 3cm.
9.There is a cylinder circumscribing the hemisphere such that their bases are
common. Find the ratio of their volumes. D C
A O B
Solution:
R =OA = OB = Radius of hemisphere.
= Radius of cylinder ABCD.
Height of the cylinder = BC = radius
3
3
pr
3
2
pr
Volume of hemisphere
Volume of cylinder
= = 2
3 , Since h = r
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10.The volume of a rectangular solid is to be increased by 50% without altering its
base. To what extent the height of the solid must be changed.
Solution:
Let l, b the sides of the base, so that the area of the base = lb
remains constant.
Let ‘h’ be the height of the solid.
Volume of the solid, V = l× b× h.
Since the volume is to be increased by 50%
New volume =
2
3lbh
2
3V
= and hence,
We find that ‘h’ is to be increased by 50% without changing the
base area.
11.What is the ratio between the volumes of a cylinder and cone of the same height
and of the same diameter?
1
3
pr h
3
1
pr h
Volume of cone
Volume of cylinder
2
2
= = =3: 1, since the radius and
height are the same for both solids.
12. If the base of a pyramid is a square of 6cm side and its slant height is 5cm. Find
its slant surface area.
Solution:
Slant surface of a pyramid =
perimeter of base slantheight
2
1
× × (4 Side of squarebase) Slantheight
2
1
× × ×
4 6 5 60cm2
2
1
= × × × =
13. A conical flask is full of water. The flask has base radius ‘r’. and height ‘h’ of
water is poured into a cylindrical flask of base radius ‘m r’. Find the height of water
in the flask.
Solution:
pr h
3
Volume of water in the conical flask = 1 2
Area of the base of the cylindrical flask of the base radius ‘m r’
= pm2r2
Areaof base of cylinder
Volume of water
Rise in level of water in the cylinder =
=
2 2
2
pm r
pr h
3
1
3m2
h =
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O Apex
r r = a / 2
a
14. In a right pyramid, whose base is a square, a maximum cone is placed such that
its base is in the base of the pyramid and vertex at the vertex of the pyramid.
Find the ratio of the volume of pyramid to that of the cone.
Solution:
Areaof base cone Height
3
1
Areaof base Height
3
1
Volume of the cone
Volume of thepyramid
× ×
× ×
=
=
4
pa h
3
1
a h
3
1
2
2
×
×
2
a , since radius of cone =
=
p
4
15. What part of the volume of a cube is the pyramid whose base is the base of the
cube and whose vertex is the center of the cube?
Solution:
2
a
a
3
1
a
Volume of thepyramid
Volume of the cube
2
3
× ×
= = 6: 1
2
a Area of base Height
3
1
[Volume of the pyramid = × × and h=
h
a
a
h=a/2
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Sets Venn diagram applications
Set:
A set is a well-defined collection of elements.
Ex.1:
A = {Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswathi, Kaveri}
Well-defined ? rivers
Ex. 2:
B = {2, 4, 5, 6, 8….}
Well-defined ? even integers
Remark:
In Ex.1, we have a finite set and in example Ex.2, we have an infinite set.
Subset:
A set A is called a subset of B, if all the elements of A are also the elements of
B. we writs A? B
Ex.
Let A = {4, 6, 8} and B = {2, 4, 6, 8} then A? B
Equal sets:
Two sets A and B are said to be equal if all the elements in A are elements in
B and vice-versa.
Notation: A = B
Ex.
If A = {2, 4, 8}, B = {4, 2, 8}
Then A = B Note that order is not important.
Universal set:
In any discussion on sets, there exists a very large set which is such that all
the sets under discussion are subsets of this large set.
Such a large set is called Universal set and is denoted by U.
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Singleton set:
A set which contains only one element is called a singleton set.
Ex.
A = {a} B = {2}
Null set or Empty set:
A set with no elements is called a null set or empty set.
A null set is denoted by {F} (phi)
Union of two sets:
The union of two sets A and B is the set consisting of all the elements which
belong to A or B or both A and B. It is denoted by A ? B
Ex.1
A = {1, 2, 3}
B ={3, 4, 5, 6}
A ? B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
Ex. 2
A ? B = {x /x ?A or x ?B}
x is an element such that x belongs to A or B or both
Please check with Ex.1
Intersection of two sets:
The intersection of two sets A and B is the set consisting of all the elements
which belong to both A and B.
Notation: A n B
Ex. 1
A = {1, 2, 3}
B = {3, 4, 5, 6}
A n B = {3}
Ex. 2
A n B = {x /x ?A and x ?B}
x such that x belongs to A and x belongs to B
Note:
Union ? or
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Intersection ? and
Difference of two sets:
The difference of two sets A and B is the set of all elements which are in A but
not in B.
Notation: A – B
Ex. 1
A = {1, 3, 5, 7}
B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 8}
A – B = {5, 7}
Observe that B – A = {0, 2, 8}
Ex. 2
A – B = {x /x ?A and x ?B}
x such that x belongs to A and x does not belong to B
B – A = {x /x ?B and x ?A}
Disjoint sets:
Two sets A and B are said to be disjoint, it A n B = {F}
Ex. 1
A = {1, 2, 3}
B = {4, 5, 6}
A n B = {F}
Complement of a set:
The complement of a set A is the set of all those elements of universal set U
excluding the elements of A.
Ex.1
U = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}
A = {1, 3, 5, 7}
A’ = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9}
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Diagrammatic Representation:
1.
U ? Rectangle ? Universal set
U
A
A ? circle ? set
2. A ? B
U
A B
(shaded portion A ? B)
3. A n B
?
A B
(shaded portion A n B)
4. A’
A’
A
(shaded portion A’)
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Laws of set theory
1. Cumulative Law
A n B = B n A and A ? B = B ? A
2. Associative Law
A ? (B ? C) = (A ? B) ? C
A n (B n C) = (A n B) n C
3. Distributive Law
A n (B ? C) = (A n B) ? (A n C)
A ? (B n C) = (A ? B) n (A ? C)
Examples:
1. A and B are two sets such that A = {3, 4} and B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
what is (A - B) n B?
(A - B) n B = (A n B) - (B n B)
= {3, 4}- {1,2,3,4,5}
= {F}
2. 30 students joined a computer institute. 25 took VC ++ and 20 took
ORACLE. How many chose both VC ++ and ORACLE?
(A n B) = 15
A B
10 15 5
15 students chose both VC++ and ORACLE
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3. Out of thousand people, 450 subscribe for India Today and 600 for Outlook
magazine. 200 subscribe for both. How many do not subscribe to any
magazine?
Let
I = India magazine
O = Outlook
I n O = 200
No. of people = 1000
No. of people who subscribe for all = 850
No. of person who don’t subscribe for any
Magazine = 1000 – 850 = 150
I O
250 200 400
4. There are two thousand families living in a country. 900 families possess cars
only, 607 possess both cars and two wheelers and 100 families possess none.
How many possess only two wheelers? C T
Let ‘x’ families possess only x two wheelers 900 607 x
900 + 607 + x = 2000
x = 2000 – 1507 = 493
5. In a symposium of 400 people, it was observed that 200 write
with Reynolds, 70 with Parker and 50 with Paper mate pens. 30 people had
both Reynolds and Parker. 20 had Reynolds and Paper mate and 8 had Parker
and Paper mate. How many had Reynolds alone?
Here we have 3 sets
R = Reynolds, P = Parker and Pa = Paper mate.
No. of people who possess Reynolds = n (R) = 200
n (P) = 70 n (Pa) = 50
n (P n R) = 30
n (R n Pa) = 20
n (Pa n P) = 8
n (Pa n P n R) = 4
People who possess Reynolds alone
R P 50
200
16
4
26 4
Pa
70
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= n(R) – n(R n Pa) - n(R n P) + n (R n Pa n P)
= 200 – 20 – 30 + 8
= 154
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Logarithms (4 Pages).doc
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Logarithms
(1) log ab = log a + log b
(2)
b
log a = log a – log b
(3) log ab = b log a
(4) loga a = 1
(5) loga1 = 0
(6)
logb
loga
logba =
(7) logba = logca.logbc
(8) logba.logab = 1
(9)
log b
1
log a
a
b =
Problems
1. If log (2x 1) log (x 1)
2
1
2
1 + = + , then find ‘x’.
log (2x 1) log (x 1)
2
1
2
1 + = +
2x + 1 = x + 1, since the bases are equal
x = 0
2. If log (x2 8) 2
3
1 + = - find x.
log (x2 8) 2
3
1 + = -
x 8
3
1 2
2
+ = ??
?
??
? -
32 = x2 + 8
x2 + 8 – 9 = 0
x2 – 1 = 0
x = ±1
3. If log (3x 8) 2 x find ‘x’
3 - = -
log (3x 8) 2 x
3 - = -
Put 3x = t
t 8
t
1
9
3 3 3 8
3 3 8
2 x x
2 x x
× = -
× = -
= -
-
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t 8
t
9 = -
9 = t2 – 8t
t2 – 8t – 9 = 0
t2 – 9t + t – 9 = 0
t (t – 9) + 1(t – 9) = 0
(t – 9) (t + 1) = 0
t = 9 or –1
3x = 32 or 3x = -1 (invalid)
x = 2
4. If log10x = 98 – x log 107 find x
x log 10 = 98 – 7x log 10
x log 10 + 7x log 10 = 98
8x log 10 = 98
8x = 98, since log 10 =1
4
49
8
x = 98 = =12.25
5. If log2(1 + x) = log3x , find x
log2(1 + x) = log3x
log3(1+ x).log23 = log3x
( ) log 2
log x
log 1 x
3
3
3 =
+
?logx (1+ x) = log32 = 2log92 = log94
x = 9
6. If loge x.log4 e = 3then find ‘x’.
We know by change of base rule.
logba = logca.logbc
logex.log4e = log4x = 3 (given)
3
log4
logx
= [use the formula ]
logb
loga
logba =
log x = 3 log 4 = log(43)
x = 43 = 64
7. If log (x x) log4(x 1) 2 Find x.
2
4 + - + =
log (x x) log4(x 1) 2
2
4 + - + =
2
x 1
x x
log
2
4 = ?
?
?
?
? ?
?
?
+
+
b
a
[loga - logb = log
4 16
x 1
x x 2
2
= =
+
+
x2 + x = 16(x + 1)
x2 + x = 16x + 16
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x2 – 15x – 16 = 0
(x – 16)(x + 1) = 0
x = 16 or x = -1
x = -1 is invalid, since it cannot satisfy the given equation. Hence x = 16
8. Simplify logx + log(x2) + log(x3) + .... + log(xn)
= log x + 2 logx + 3 log x + ……. + n log x [ using log mn = n log m]
= log x [1 +2 + 3 + …… + n], taking log x as common factor.
logx
2
n(n + 1)
= , since the sum of the first ‘n’ natural numbers =
2
n(n + 1)
9. What is the characteristic of the logarithm of 0.0000134?
log (0.0000134). Since there are four zeros between the decimal point and
the first significant digit, the characteristic is –5.
Note:
If a decimal has n ciphers between the decimal point and the first significant
digit, the characteristic of the logarithm of that decimal is – (n + 1).
10. Find the value of logba.logcb.logac
logb a.logc b.loga c= 1
loga
logc
.
logc
logb
.
logb
loga
=
11. If a, b, c are any three consecutive integers, find the value of log (1 + ac)
Since a, b, c are three consecutive integers.
a + c = 2b, i.e., b = a + 1 ?? a = b – 1
c = b + 1
log (1 + ac)
= log [1 + (b – 1) (b + 1)]
= log (1 + b2 –1) = logb2 = 2 log b
12. Without using the log tables, find the value of
log125
log3225
3
5
3log5
5log5
log5
log5
log125
log3225
3
5
= = =
Since ‘log 5’ gets cancelled.
13. If log10(m) = x - log10nthen prove that m = 10x
n
1
Given log10m = x - log10n
log m log n x
10 + 10 =
log mn x
10 =
mn = 10x [Note: If logba = c, then bc = a]
10x
n
1
m =
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14. If
4
21
log2x + log4x + log16x = find the value of ‘x’.
Given
4
21
log2x + log4x + log16x =
4
21
log16
logx
log4
logx
log2
logx
? + + =
x 8
logx 3log2 log2 log8
3
7
21
log2
logx
4
21
4
7
log2
logx
4
21
4
1
2
1
1
log2
logx
4
21
4log2
logx
2log2
logx
log2
logx
3
=
? = = =
? = =
? × =
= ??
?
??
? ? + +
? + + =
15. Without using log tables, find the value of log10 50 - 2log10 5 - log10 2
log1050 - 2log105 - log102 = log10 50 - [2log10 5 + log10 2]
= log10 50 - [log10 25 + log10 2]
= log10 50 - log10(25 × 2)
= log10 50 - log10 50
= 0
16. If antilog of 0.7551 = 5.690, find the antilog of 3.7551
Given antilog of 0.7551 = 5.690
Antilog of 3.7551 = 5690
[In the antilog of 3.7551, the characteristic is ‘3’, but the mantissa is the
same as in antilog of 0.7751]
Antilog of 3.7551 must be a number lying between 1000 and 10000.
17. If loga64 = 3 find the value of ‘a’.
Given loga 64 = 3 Rule: If log ba = c, then bc = a
a 4
a3 64 43
=
= =
18. Find the logarithm of1728 to the base of 2 3
Let log 1728 x 2 3 = say
( )x ( )6
2 3 = 1728 = 2 3
Hence x = 6
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Note : 1728 = 26 × 33 = 26 × ( 3)6 = (2 3)6
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Equations
SIMPLE EQUATIONS & SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
Simple equations and Simultaneous equations in 2 variables.
A simple equation is an equation in a single variable, whose value must be
determined.
(1) ax + b = 0 ?
a
b
x = - is called a simple equation in one unknown.
(2) ax + by + c = 0 is the general form of a linear equation in two variables.
(3) ax + by + c = 0 is a single linear equation in two variables which admits of
infinite number of solutions.
(4) a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 ----- (1)
a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 ----- (2)
For the above equations (1) and (2) in two variables x and y, the solution is
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
a b a b
b c b c
x
-
-
= and
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
a b a b
c a c a
y
-
-
=
(i) The above system of equations has a unique solution if
2
1
2
1
b
b
a
a
? . Such a
system is a consistent system. The graph consists of two intersecting lines.
(ii) If
2
1
2
1
2
1
c
c
b
b
a
a
= ? , then there is no solution to the system. It is called
inconsistent. The graph consists of two parallel lines.
If
2
1
2
1
2
1
c
c
b
b
a
a
= = , the system has infinite solutions. The graph consists of two
coincident lines.
1. Solve
2
1
8
3
12
5x
- =
Solution:
8
7
8
3
2
1
12
5x
= + =
2.1
10
21
5
12
8
7
x = × = =
2. Find a number such that the difference between nine times the number and four
times the number is 55.
Solution:
Let the number be ‘x’ say.
9x – 4x = 55
5x = 55
x = 11
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3. A father is now three times as old as his son. Five years ago. he was four times as
old as his son. Find their present ages.
Solution:
Let the present age of the son be ‘x’ years, say.
Father’s present age = 3x years
Five years ago, age of the son = (x – 5) years
Fathers age = (3x – 5) years
Given that, 5 years ago. Father’s age = 4 × son’s age
3x – 5 = 4(x – 5)
= 4x – 20
x = 15
Son’s present age = 15 years
Father’s present age = 45 years
4. Find four consecutive odd numbers whose sum is 56.
Solution:
Let the first odd number be assumed as ‘x’.
The other three consecutive odd numbers in ascending order will be x + 2, x
+ 4, x + 6.
Given x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) + (x + 6) = 56
4x + 12 = 56
4x = 44
11
4
44
x = =
Hence the four consecutive odd numbers are 11, 13, 15, 17.
5. ‘A’ is 7 years older than ‘B’. 15 years ago, ‘B’ is age was
4
3
of A’s age. Find their
present ages.
Solution:
Let the present ages of B and A be ‘x’ and (x + 7) respectively.
15 years ago, ‘B’s age was (x – 15) years
15 years ago, ‘A’ is age was [(x + 7) – 15] = (x – 8) years
Given B’s age =
4
3
(A’s age) 15 years ago
x – 15 =
4
3
(x – 8)
4x – 60 = 3x – 24
x = 60 – 24 = 36 = B’s present age
A’s present age = x + 7 = 36 + 7 = 43 years
6. If ‘A’ gives B Rs.4. B will have twice as much as A. If B gives A Rs.15, A will have
10 times as much as B. How much each has originally?
Solution:
Let the amounts with ‘A’ and ‘B’ be ‘x’ rupees ‘y’ rupees respectively
A gives 4 rupees to B.
A will have (x – 4)
B will have (y + 4)
Given, y + 4 = 2(x – 4) = 2x – 8
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2x – y = 12 -------------------(1)
Secondly, if B gives 15 rupees to A.
B will have y – 15
A will have x + 15
Given x + 15 = 10(y – 15) = 10y – 150
-x + 10y =165 ------(2)
(2) × 2 ? -2x + 20y = 330 -------- (3)
2x – y = 12 -------- (1)
(3) + (1) ? 19y = 342
18
19
342
y = =
Put y = 18 in (1), we get 2x – 18 = 12
2x = 30
x = 15
A’s original possession = Rs.15
B’s original possession = Rs.18
7. Find two numbers which are such that one-fifth of the greater exceeds one-sixth
of the smaller by ‘4’; and such that one-half of the greater plus one-quarter of the
smaller equals ‘38’.
Solution:
Let the two numbers be ‘x’ and ‘y’ say
Let x > y, say
Given y 4
6
1
x
5
1
- =
6x – 5y = 120 ----------- (1)
Given secondly y 38
4
1
x
2
1
+ =
2x + y = 152 --------------- (2)
Solve for ‘x’ and ‘y’ from (1) & (2)
(2) × 5 ? 10x + 5y = 760 ---------- (3)
(1) + (3) ? 16x = 880
55
16
880
x = =
From (2), 110 + y = 152
y = 152 – 110 = 42
The numbers are 55 and 42.
8. A man left Rs.1750 to be divided among his two daughters and four sons. Each
daughter was to receive three times as much as a son. How much did each son and
daughter receive?
Solution:
Let a son’s share be x rupees
The share of a daughter = 3x rupees.
Total amount father left = Rs.1750, to be divided among 2 daughters and 4
sons.
2 × 3x + 4x = 1750
10x = 1750
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x = 175 rupees
Each son’s share = Rs.175 and each daughter’s share = Rs.525.
9. The sum of a certain number and its square root is 90. Find the number.
Solution:
Let the number be ‘x’, say
Given x + x = 90 ---------- (1)
x = 90 - x
Squaring x = (90 – x)2 = 8100 – 180x + x2
? x2 – 181x + 8100 = 0
? x2 – 100x – 81x + 8100 = 0
? x(x – 100) – 81(x – 100) = 0
? (x – 100) (x – 81) = 0
? x = 100 or 81
x = 100 is invalid , according to equation (1).
Therefore x = 81.
10. In a family, eleven times the number of children is greater by 12 than twice the
square of the number of children. How many children are there in the family?
Solution:
Let the number of children in the family be ‘x’, say
Given 11x = 2x2 + 12
? 2x2 – 11x + 12 = 0
? 2x2 – 8x – 3x + 12 = 0
? 2x(x – 4) –3(x – 4) = 0
? x = 4 x =
2
3
is invalid. So delete
? The number of children in the family = 4
11. Find three consecutive positive integers such that the square of their sum
exceeds the sum of their squares by 214.
Solution:
Let the three consecutive +ve integers be x, x + 1, x + 2
Given (x + x + 1 + x +2)2 = x2 +(x + 1)2 + (x + 2)2 + 214
(3x + 3)2 = x2 + x2 + 2x + 1 + x2 + 4x + 4 + 214
? 9(x2 + 2x + 1) = 3x2 + 6x + 219
? 9x2 + 18x + 9 = 3x2 + 6x + 219
? 6x2 + 12x – 210 = 0
? x2 + 2x –35 = 0 (Dividing through out by 6.)
? (x + 7) (x – 5) = 0
x = 5 or –7 [x = -7 is to be deleted. Since we have to take only +ve integers
as per given data]
The three consecutive positive integers are 5, 6, 7.
12. I have a certain number of apples to be divided equally among 18 children. If
the number of apples and the number of children were increased by ‘2’, each child
would get 5 apples less. How many apples have to distribute?
Solution:
Let the number of apples be ‘x’, say
Number of children = 18
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Since each should get equal number of apples,
No of apples for each child =
18
x
Now, when the number of apples and the number of children were increased by 2,
each child gets 5 apples less.
5
18
x
20
x 2
= -
+
5
20
x 2
18
x
=
+
-
? 20x – 18(x + 2) = 360 × 5
? 20x – 18x – 36 = 1800
? 2x = 1800 + 36 = 1836
918
2
1836
?x = =
The number of apples is ‘918’, so that equal distribution among ‘18’ children is quite
likely.
13. A fraction is such that if ‘2’ is added to the numerator and ‘5’ to the
denominator, the fraction becomes
2
1
. If the numerator of the original fraction is
trebled and the denominator increased by 15, the resulting fraction is
3
1
. Find the
original fraction.
Solution:
Let the original fraction be
y
x
.
Given
2
1
y 5
x 2
=
+
+
? 2x + 4 = y + 5
? 2x – y = 1 -------------- (1)
Also given
3
1
y 15
3x
=
+
? 9x = y + 15
? 9x – y = 15 ------------- (2)
(2) – (1) ? 7x = 14
x = 7
From (1) we get y = 2x – 1 = 14 – 1 = 13
Hence, the original fraction is
13
7
14. Two friends A and B start on a holiday together, A with Rs.380 and B with
Rs.260. During the holiday, B spends 4 rupees more than A and when holidays end,
A has 5 times as much as B. How much has each spent?
Solution:
Let ‘x’ rupees be the amount spent by A.
(x + 4) rupees would have been spent by B.
Initially A had Rs.380 and B had Rs.260.
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At the end of the holidays ‘A’ had an amount of 380 – x
‘B’ had an amount of 260 – (x + 4)
i.e., 256 – x
Given, 380 – x = 5(256 – x)
= 1280 – 5x
? 4x = 1280 – 380 = 900
225
4
900
x = = Rupees
‘A’ spent Rs.225 and ‘B’ spent Rs.229.
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QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(1) ax2 + bx + c = 0 is called a general quadratic equation. The solution for ‘x’ is
2a
b b 4ac
x
- ± 2 -
=
(2) If a, ß are the roots of the equations, then a + ß =
a
b
- ;
a
c
aß =
(3) b2 – 4ac is called the ‘discriminant’ of the quadratic, denoted by ?
(4) If ? > 0 and not a perfect square, the roots are real and unequal.
(5) If ? > 0 and also a perfect square, the roots are unequal and rational
(6) If ? = 0, the roots are equal and real
(7) If ? < 0, the roots are imaginary
Problems:
1. Solve: 9x2+15x-14 = 0
Here ‘a’ = 9; b =15; c = -14
?x =
18
- 15 ± 225 + 4 × 9 × 14
=
18
12
18
15 27
=
- ±
or
18
-42
=
3
7
or
3
2 -
2. Solve (x+5) (x-5) = 39
x2 – 25 = 39
x2 = 64
x = ±8
3. Solve: 8x 8x 2 63
3
2
3
- =
-
Put x2 y
3
=
63
y
8
8y - =
8y2 – 8 = 63y
8y2- 63y – 8 = 0
8y2 – 64y +y –8 = 0
8y(y-8) + 1( y-8) = 0
(y-8) (8y+1) = 0
y=8 or y =
8
1
-
But, y = x 2 8
3
=
X= 8 3 3 64 4
2
= =
Or, y = x3/2 = -
8
1
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X = 3
2 / 3
64
1
8
1
= ??
?
??
?
- =
4
1
4. Solve
a a 1
a a 1
x x 1
x x 1
2
2
2
2
+ +
- +
=
+ +
- +
(x2-x+1)(a2+a+1) = (x2+x+1) (a2-a+1)
x2(a2+a+1-a2+a-1) +x(-a2-a-1-a2+a-1) + (a2+a+1-a2+a-1) = 0
2ax2-2x(a2+1) +2a = 0
ax2-x(a2+1) + a = 0
ax2-a2x-x+a = 0
ax(x-a) –1(x-a) = 0
(x-a)(ax-1) = 0
?x = a or
a
1
5. Show that (x-1)(x-3)(x-4)(x-6) + 10 is positive for real values of x
Consider, (x-1)(x-6)(x-3)(x-4) + 10 =(x2-7x+6) (x2-7x+12) + 10
Put x2-7x+6 = t
?t(t+6) + 10
= t2+6t+10
= (t2+6t+9) + 1
= (t+3)2+1 = (x2-7x+9)2+1 which is clearly positive for real values of ‘x’.
6. A two digit number is less than 3 times the product of its digits by 8 and the digit
in the ten’s place exceeds the digit in the unit’s place by ‘2’.Find the number.
Let the numbers have x in ten’s place and y in the unit place
?10x+y = 3xy – 8……….(1)
x-y = 2 …………...(2)
From (2) x= y+2
In (1), 10(y+2)+y = 3y(y+2)-8
10y + 20 + y = 3y2+6y-8
3y2-5y-28 = 0
3y2-12y+7y-28 = 0
3y(y-4) + 7(y-4) = 0
(y-4) (3y+7) = 0
y=4 or -
3
7
( y = -7/3 is deleted)
? x = y+2 => x = 6
?The number is ‘64’.
7. A carpet whose length is
6
1
1 times its width is laid on the floor of a rectangular
room, with a margin of 1 foot all around. The area of the floor is 4 times that of
the margin. Find the width of the room.
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D C
S R
1 y
P Q
x
Let x and y be the length and breadth of the carpet.
A B
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Given, x=
6
7y
6x = 7y…………(1)
Length of the floor = x+2
Breadth of the floor = y+2
Area of the margin = Area of the floor – Area of the carpet
=(x+2)(y+2) – xy
= xy +2x + 2y + 4 – xy
= 2x+2y+4
Given, Area of the floor = 4× Area of the margin.
(x+2)(y+2) = 4 (2x+2y+4)
xy + 2x + 2y + 4 = 8x + 8y + 16
xy – 6x – 6y – 12 = 0………..(2)
put, x =
6
7y
in (2)
? 7y 6y 12 0
6
7y2
- - - =
7y2-78y – 72 = 0
7y2- 84y + 6y –72 = 0
7y(y-12) +6(7y-12) = 0
(y-120 (7y+6) = 0
y =12 ; y = -
7
6
is deleted.
?x = 14
6
7 12
6
7y
=
×
=
?Width of the room = 12 feet
Length of the room = 14 feet
Note:
‘10x+y’ is the value of the number
8. The sum of the first ‘x’ natural numbers is
2
x(x + 1)
. How many numbers must be
taken to get 351 as the sum?
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351
2
x(x 1) =
+
x2+x = 702
x2+x-702 = 0
x2+27x-26x-702 = 0
x (x+27) – 26(x+27) = 0
(x-26) (x-27) = 0
x = 26 (x= -27 is to be deleted)
The first 26 natural numbers must be taken to get a sum of ‘351’.
9. Solve: x + y = x2-y2 = 23
x+y= 23……..(1)
x2 – y2 = 23……(2)
(x+y) (x-y) = 23
23(x-y) = 23
?x-y = 1………(3)
x+y = 23……….(1)
(1) + (3) ,
2x = 24
x = 12
?y= 11
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Inequalities
1. If x > y, then -x < -y.
2. If x > y, then x + p > y + p where p can be +ve, -ve or 0.
3. If x > y and p is a +ve number then xp > yp and
p
y
p
x
> .
4. If x > y and p is a –ve number then
p
y
p
x
< .
5. If x > y and x, y are +ve, then
y
1
x
1
< .
6. If x > y and x, y are –ve, then
x y
1 < 1 .
7. |a + b| = |a| + |b|
8. |a - b| = |a| - |b|
9. | x | < a where a is +ve means –a < x < a.
10. | x | > a, where a is +ve means x < -a or x > a.
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READING COMPREHENSION TEST
What is it? A prose passage running into 400 to 1000 words followed by some
questions based on the contents of the passage. You have to go through the
passage, comprehend it properly and then answer the questions. So this type of
question is meant to assess your power to understand the passage critically.
Types of questions set. Generally the following questions are set in this type:
(1) The main idea of the passage is ___________.
(2) The most appropriate title of the passage is _________.
(3) Which of the following is implied in the passage?
(4) The writer says __________.
(5) The inference one can draw __________.
(6) The writer does not say ___________.
(7) Correct meanings of words or phrases ___________.
(8) Practical application of certain ideas given in the passage etc.etc.,
How to approach Comprehension test?
1. Read the questions (not their answer choice) first
2. Bearing those questions in mind go through the passage. Put a dot on the
sentence or line that gives a clue to the answer.
3. Give only one reading to the passage. In case you do not understand the passage
in one reading, you need more spade work that is fast reading of the passage
and then recapitulation.
4. Then go through the questions and their answer choices. See which answer
choice gives the most accurate answer.
5. While checking up the answer choice you should take special care of the verb and
their qualifying words, nouns and their qualifying words. They should give the
same meaning that the clue-sentence to the answer means.
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Verbal Ability
General guidelines and illustrations:
The verbal section helps to evaluate your practicing the English Language and
to work with specialized technical vocabulary. It assesses your ability to understand.
A variety of questions are designed to assess the extent of your vocabulary, to
measure your ability to use words as tools in reasoning, to test your ability to discern
the relationships that exist both within written passages and among individual
groups of words. You are tested not only for your use of words but also for
reasoning and arguing.
This is a multiple – choice examination. You must answer a number of
questions in a given period of time. That is to say, you must not only have analytical
skill to comprehend the correct meaning of words but you must also be capable of
instant, precise and powerful judgment.
The following types of questions come under this section:
1. Sentence Completion
2. Analogy
3. Reconstruction of paragraphs
4. Synonyms / Antonyms
5. Sentence Improvement (i.e. style of expression)
6. Error Correction
7. Odd word out
8. Foreign words
These questions test your ability in formal written English. Many things
that are acceptable in spoken English are not acceptable in written English. This
section tests your ability to understand the meaning of a word individually and also
in relationship with other words.
All the types of questions listed above are not likely to be set in any
particular examination and all possible types are also not listed here.
1. Sentence Completion:
The sentence completion section consists of sentences, a part or parts of
which have been omitted, followed by five choices that are possible substitutions for
the omitted parts. You have to select the choice that best completes each sentence.
The sentences cover a wide variety of topics over a number of academic fields. They
do not, however, test specific academic knowledge in any field.
Example:
The quarterback’s injury was very painful but not _________ and he managed to
_____________ the game in spite of it.
a. serious …….. interrupt
b. incapacitating ……. Finish
c. harmful ……. Abandon
d. conducive ……. Enter
e. excruciating …. Concede
Solution:
The best answer is (b). The first blank must complete the contrast set up by
‘but not’. Only a, b and e are possible choices on this basis. Then the ‘inspite of’
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sets up a contrast between what comes before the comma and what follows. Only
(b) provides the needed thought reversal.
2. Analogy
Analogy questions test your understanding of the relationships among words
and ideas. You are given one pair of words, followed by five answer choices (also
word pairs). The idea is to select from among the five choices a pair that expresses
a relationship similar to that expressed by the original pair. Many relationships are
possible. The two terms in the pair can be synonyms. One can be a cause, the other
effect. One can be a tool, the other the worker who used the tool.
Example:
MINISTER : PULPIT
a. doctor : patient
b. student : teacher
c. mechanic : engine
d. programme : engine
e. judge : bench
The best choice is (e). The pulpit is the place where the minister does her or his job,
and the bench is the place where the judge does his or her job.
3. Reconstructing paragraphs:
Here you will find jumbled up sentences of a readable and well-connected
paragraph. Four different sequences of these sentences are indicated in a
corresponding sequence of code numbers. You are to pick the correct arrangement.
Example:
1. What one saw this year was a fine balance between Multimedia and conventional
publishing.
A. Multimedia companies had a strong presence
B. Fine in the happy sense of the world
C. This consists of demonstrations and talks on new education software
D. In fact, for the first time there was a special focus on Multimedia learning.
The conventional publishers looked and sounded more confident of themselves.
1. ADCB 2. BADC 3. DCBA 4. DCAB
You are to identify one among the choices indicating the most appropriate
sequential arrangement to fit between statement 1 and statement 6.
The best answer choice to continue the trend of thought in sentence 1 would
be (2). BADC.
4. Synonyms/Antonyms
Under this section, a single word is followed by five different words as
possible answer choices. The idea is to pick the answer that has the meaning which
is most nearly the same as (synonyms) or most nearly the opposite (antonyms) of
the given word.
Example: Antonyms
WAIVE
A. repeat
B. conclude
C. Insist upon
D. Improve upon
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E. peruse
The best answer (c). to waive means to forego or relinquish. A fairly precise
opposite is ‘insist upon’.
5. Sentence Improvement:
This tests your mastery of written English. You must demonstrate your ability
to recognize incorrect (grammatical and logical) or ineffective (clear, concise,
idiomatic) expressions and choose the best (correct, concise, stylish, idiomatic) of
several suggested revisions. Each question begins with a sentence, all or parts of
which have been underlined. The answer choices represent the different ways of
rendering the underlined part.
Beautifully sanded and re-varnished, Bill proudly displayed the antique desk in his
den.
A. Beautifully sanded and re-varnished, Bill proudly displayed the antique desk in his
den.
B. Beautiful, sanded and re-varnished, in his den Bill proudly displayed his desk.
C. An antique, and beautifully sanded and re-varnished, in his den Bill proudly
displayed his desk.
D. Bill proudly displayed the antique desk beautifully sanded and re-varnished, in his
den.
E. Bill, beautifully sanded and revarnished in the den, proudly displayed the antique
desk.
The correct answer is D. The sentence originally written suggests that it was
Bill who was sanded and revarnished. Only D. makes it clear that it was the desk,
not Bill that was refurbished.
6. Error corrections:
In this section, you have to pick the error in a given sentence. Each sentence
has 4 words or phrases underlined and labeled A, B, C and D. One of those 4 items
is incorrect. You must decide which one is incorrect. The error is always one of the
underlined words or phrases. You do not have to correct the error.
Example:
When moist air rises into lowest temperatures and becomes saturated,
condensation takes place.
The sentence should read. “when moist air rises into lower temperatures and
becomes saturated, condensation takes place”.
Therefore, you should choose B as error.
Sentences without error are, generally, not given, but still in some papers you
might find them.
This section will not give you a complete grammatical review of the English
language. Many excellent books have been written which analyze the structure of
English and its many exceptions. Attempt has been made in this section to organize,
in a methodical way, the strategic error areas that you can use as a checklist when
attempting to eliminate incorrect choices. English grammar can be intricate and
confusing. This section will alert you to spot errors and will focus on the grammatical
points frequently tested.
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Strategies to be used
1. Read the question carefully for both meaning and structure, noting any
errors you recognize immediately.
2. If an error does not become immediately evident, consider each choice
independently, and see if it fits the correct pattern.
3. Remember that the error is always underlined.
4. Even if you think (A) or (B) is the correct answer, thoughtfully read and
consider the remaining choices so that you are absolutely certain that (A)
or (B) is truly the right choice.
5. Always select your answer after eliminating incorrect choices.
Grammar review
The best method of improving your use of English with this guide is to study
the formulae and sample sentences. Then do the practice exercises at the end of
each section. Practice carefully.
1.NOUNS:
A noun refers to a person, place or thing.
A countable noun refers to people or things that can be counted. You can put
a number before this kind of noun. If the noun refers to one person or thing, it
needs to be in the singular form. If it refers to more than one person or thing, it
needs to be in the plural form.
One desk one book three desks fifty books
A non-countable noun refers to general things such as qualities, substances,
or topics. They cannot be counted and have only a singular form.
Food money intelligence air
Non-countable nouns can become countable nouns when they are used to
indicate types.
The wines of California
The fruits of Northwest
(A) Some quantifiers are used with both plural countable nouns as well as with non –
countable nouns.
All any enough a lot of
Plenty of more most some lots of
Example:
I have enough money to buy the watch. (Non-countable)
I have enough sandwiches for everyone. (Countable)
(B) Some quantifiers are used only with non-countable nouns.
A little much
Example:
There is not much sugar.
(C) Some quantifiers are used only with plural countable nouns.
Both many a few several
Examples:
I took both the apples
We saw several movies.
(D) Some quantifiers are used only with singular countable nouns.
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Another each every
Examples:
Joe wanted another piece of pie.
Every child in the contest received a ribbon.
Non – countable nouns only have a singular form. Most countable nouns have
a singular form and a plural form. The plural form for most nouns has an -s or –es
ending. However, there are other singular and plural patterns.
(A) Some nouns form their plurals with a vowel change or an ending change.
SINGULAR PLURAL
Foot feet
Goose geese
Tooth teeth
Mouse mice
Louse lice
Man men
Woman women
(B) Some nouns form their plurals by changing a consonant before adding –s or –
es.
SINGULAR PLURAL
Wolf wolves
Leaf leaves
Wife wives
Knife knives
(C) Some nouns form their plurals by adding an ending
SINGULAR PLURAL
Child children
Ox oxen
(D) Some nouns have the same plural and singular form. These nouns frequently
refer to animals or fish. However, there are exceptions.
Bison fish series offspring
Deer salmon species spacecraft
Sheep trout corps
Example:
One fish is on the plate.
Two fish are on the plate.
(E) when a noun is used as an adjective, it takes a singular form.
We are leaving for two weeks. (noun)
We are going on a two week vacation (adjective)
(F) Collective nouns refer to an entire group. When a collective noun indicates a
period of time, a sum of money, or a measurement, it takes a singular form.
Two weeks is enough time to finish the contract.
Ten dollars is all I have
Seven pounds is the average weight for a new born.
(G) Some nouns end in –s but are actually singular and take singular forms.
Academic subjects: mathematics, politics, physics, statistics, economics.
Physics is professor Brown’s specialty.
Diseases: measles, mumps.
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Measles is usually contracted during childhood.
Exercise VI
Write the correct form of the underlined noun. Some underlined nouns are correct.
Examples:
The exploration was a big, good – natured man.
You should write “explorer” in the space because this is the noun form that is used
for people.
1. The furnishings of the house provide an insight into the social and domestic
life on the estate.
_______________________________________
2. A new colonization was established in Hawaii.
___________________________
3. The disturb caused the seal to move her pups.
___________________________
4. The existence of methane in the atmosphere is what gives Uranus its bluegreen
color
___________________________
5. The freeze killed all the new leaves on the trees.
__________________________
6. The landing of the troops took place under cover of night.
__________________________
7. The import of children’s play is reflected in their behavior.
__________________________
8. Inside the forest, the active is constant.
__________________________
9. The earliest arrive had to endure the discomfort of wading across the river.
___________________________
10. When the Red Cross brought food, the situate was mercifully improved.
____________________________
3. Articles and Demonstratives:
Indefinite Article: ‘A’/ ‘an’ is called indefinite articles.
(A) ‘A’ is used before a consonant sound and ‘an’ is used before a vowel sound.
(B) The letter ‘u’ can have a consonant or vowel sound:
a university but an umbrella
(C) The letter ‘h’ is sometimes not pronounced
a horse but an hour
Uses of ‘a’ or ‘an’:
(A) Before singular countable nouns when the noun is mentioned for the first
time
I see a horse
(B) When the singular form is used to make a general statement about all people
or things of that type.
A concert pianist spends many hours practicing. (All concert pianists spend
many hours practicing)
(C) In expressions of price, speed, and ratio.
60 miles an hour, four times a day.
‘A’ or ‘an’ is not used:
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(D) before plural nouns.
(E) Flowers were growing along the river bank.
(F) before non-countable nouns
I wanted advice.
Definite Article ‘The’:
‘The’ is used:
(A) before a noun that has already been mentioned.
I saw a man. The man was wearing a hat.
It is also used when it is clear in the situation in which a thing or person is
referred to:
The books on the shelf are first editions.
I went to the bank. (a particular bank)
(B) before singular noun that refers to a species or group.
The tiger lives in Asia. (Tigers, as a species, live in Asia)
(C) before adjectives used as nouns.
The children collected money to donate to the institution for the deaf. (’the
deaf’ = deaf people)
(D) when there is only one of something.
The sun shone down on the earth
This is the best horse in the race
(E) before a body part in a prepositional phrase that belongs to the object in the
sentence:
someone hit me on the head. (“Me” is the object, and it is my head that was
hit.)
or a body part in a prepositional phrase that belongs to the subject of a
passive sentence.
I was hit on the head. (“I” is the subject of the passive sentence, and it is my
head that was hit.)
Note:
A possessive pronoun, rather than the article “the” is usually used with the body
parts.
I hit my head. (“I” is neither the object of this sentence nor the subject of a passive
sentence. Therefore a passive pronoun is used.)
Some proper names take “the” and some don’t.
(F) “The” is usually used with canals, deserts, forests, oceans, rivers, seas and
plural islands, lakes and mountains.
the Suez Canal the Black Forest
the Hawaiian Islands the Atlantic Ocean
(G) “The” is used when the name of a country or state includes the word “of”, the
type of government, or a plural form.
the Republic of Ireland
the United Kingdom
the Philippines
(H) Otherwise, “The” is not used with:
the names of countries and states:
Japan Brazil Germany
the names of continents:
Africa Asia Europe
the names of cities:
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Chicago Mexico City Hong Kong
(A) the expression “a number of” means “several” or “many” and takes a plural
verb. The expression “the number of” refers to the group and takes a
singular verb.
A large number of tourists get lost because of that sign.
The number of lost tourists has increased recently.
(B) the following nouns do not always take an article:
prison school college
church bed home
court jail sea
Look at how the meaning changes:
Example: bed
No article: Jack went to bed. (=Jack walked to sleep. “Bed” refers to the
general idea of sleep)
With “the”, Jack went to the bed. (Jack walked over to a particular bed. The
bed is referred to as a specific object.)
With “a”: Jack bought a bed. (Jack purchased an object called a bed.)
(C) Articles are not used with possessives
Pronouns (“my”, “your”, etc.) or demonstratives (“this”, “that”, “these” and
“those”).
Where is my coat?
that watch was broken.
(D) Non-countable nouns are used without an article to refer to something in
general. Sometimes an article is used to show a specific meaning.
People all over the world want peace. (peace in general)
The peace was broken by a group of passing children. (“The peace” refers to
peace at a specific time and place.)
The imparting of knowledge was the job of the elders in the community.
(knowledge in general)
I have a knowledge of computers. (a specific type of knowledge.)
Demonstratives, that, these and those:
(A) the demonstrative adjectives and pronouns are for objects nearby the
speaker:
this(singular) those(plural)
and for objects far away from the speaker.
That(singular) those(plural)
(B) Demonstratives are the only adjectives that agree in number with their
nouns.
That hat is nice.
Those hats are nice.
(C) When there is the idea of selection, the pronoun “one”(or “ones”) often
follows the demonstrative.
I want a book. I ‘ll get this(one)
If the demonstrative is followed by an adjective, “one”(or “ones”) must be
used.
I want a book. I ‘ll get this big one.
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Exercise V 2:
Write the correct article (“a”, “an”, or “the”). If no article is needed, write 0.
Example:
There was a documentary about the United Arab Emirates on TV last night.
You should write “the” in the blank because the name of the country includes its type
of Government.
1. The old woman made a special tea with ______ herb that smelled of oranges.
2. Through his telescope we could see what looked like canals on Mars.
3. The children were released from _______ school early last Friday because of
a teachers’ conference.
4. Robin Hood supposedly stole from ______ rich.
5. _______ untold number of people perished while attempting to cross Death
Valley.
6. Albert is _______ only actor that I know personally.
7. An antelope can reach the speed of 60 miles.
3. Pronouns:
Pronouns are those which can be substituted for nouns. There are different kinds of
pronouns like:
SUBJECT OBJECT POSSESIVE REFLEXIVE
PRONOUN PRONOUN ADJECTIVE PRONOUN PRONOUN
I Me My Mine Myself
You You Your Yours yourself
He Him His His himself
She Her Her Hers herself
It It Its Its Itself
We Us Our Ours Ourselves
You You Your yours Yourselves
They Them Their Theirs themselves
Example:
When you see the African lions in the park, you see them in their true
environment.
Both pronouns “you” are in the subject position. The pronoun “them” is the object
pronoun and refers to the lions. The pronoun “their” is in the possessive form
because the environment discussed in the sentence is that of the lions.
Possessive pronouns are usually used with reference to parts of the body.
She put the shawl over her shoulder
She lifted the boy and put the shawl over his shoulder.
The pronoun would agree with the word it refers to
When onion vapours reach your nose, they irritate the membranes in your
nostrils, and they in turn irritate the tear ducts in your eyes.
It is unclear whether “they” refers to vapours, membranes or nostrils.
The little girl put on her hat.
If the hat belongs to the girl, the possessive pronoun must agree with the word
“girl”.
Exercise V 4:
If the underlined pronoun is incorrect, write the correct form.
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Example:
We prepared the supper by ourself.
Ourselves____________
“our” refers to more than one person. Therefore, “self” should be in the
plural form.
1. The forest rangers tranquilized the grizzly bears and attached radios to them
necks.
________________
2. While tide pools can survive natural assaults, their are defenseless against
humans.
_________________
3. you and your brother need to take time to prepare yourself for the long
journey
_________________
4. The larvae metamorphose into miniature versions of their adult form.
_____________
5. These minute insects – twenty of they could fit on a pinhead – drift on wind
currents.
_______________
6. Most of the failures made theirselves a home of a packing crates and sheet
metal.
________________
7. His is a future dictated by poverty and hardship.
_________________
8. It took their days to reach the lower regions in the winter.
__________
4. Subject:
All complete sentences contain a subject. Exception: the command form, in which
the subject is understood. (For example: “Do your homework”.)
(A) The subject may consist of one or more nouns:
Birds fly.
Birds and bats fly.
(B) The subject may consist of a phrase (a group of words that includes the subject
and words that modify it)
___________ Subject Phrase ____________
the first Persian carpet I bought was very expensive.
The subject noun is “carpet”. In general, the entire subject phrase can be replaced
by a pronoun. In this case:
It was very expensive.
(C) Various structures may be used for subjects.
Nouns The clover smells sweet.
Pronoun it is a new bookcase.
Clause (contains noun + verb) what they found surprised me.
Gerund (-ing forms) Swimming is a good exercise
Gerund phrase Working ten years in the mine
Was enough
Infinitive (to + verb) To sleep is a luxury
Infinitive phrase To be able to read is important
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(D) Several different clause structures can be used for subjects. Wh – sturu: where
we go depends on the job opportunities.
Yes/ No – structures: whether it rains or not doesn’t matter.
“The fact that” – structures (“The fact” is frequently omitted in these structures):
The fact that he survived the accident is a miracle.
That he survived the accident is a miracle.
The subject noun or phrase and the pronoun that could replace it cannot be used
in the same sentence.
Correct:
A ball is a toy. A tall and a bat are in the yard.
It is a toy. They are in the yard.
Incorrect:
A ball it is a toy. A ball and a bat they are in the yard.
Subject Verb Agreement:
The subject (S) and the verb (V) must agree in person and number. Note the
following subject – verb agreement rules:
(A) A prepositional phrase does not affect the verb.
S V
The houses on the street are for sale.
S V
The house with the broken steps is for sale.
(B) The following expressions do not affect the verb
Accompanied by as well as
Along with in addition to
Among together with
S V
Jim, together with Tom, is going fishing.
______S____ V
Jim and Linda, along with Tom and Sally, are going fishing
(C) Subject joined by “and” or “both”…… and….” Take a plural verb.
Both Sekar and Usha are leaving town.
(D) When “several”, “many”, “both” and “few” are used as pronouns, they take a
plural verb.
Several have already left the party.
(E) When the following phrases are used, the verb agrees with the subject that is
closer to the verb in the sentence.
Either …. Or
Neither …. Nor
Not only ….. but also
Neither my sister nor my brothers want to work in an office.
Neither my brothers nor my sister wants to work in an office.
(F) When a word indicating nationality refers to a language, it is singular.
When it refers to the people, it is plural
Japanese was a difficult language for me to learn
The Japanese are very inventive people
(G) The expression “a number of “(meaning “several”) is plural. The expression “the
number of” is singular.
A number of items have been deleted.
The number of deleted items is small
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(H) When clauses, infinitives, or gerunds are used as subjects, they usually take a
singular verb.
What it takes is lots of courage
To fly in space is her dream
Learning a new skill is very satisfying
Some gerunds can take a plural form. These gerunds use a plural verb.
Their findings suggest that the fire was caused by an arsonist.
Usage of ‘IT’ and ‘THERE’
(A) Sometimes a speaker wants to focus on the type of information that is
expressed by an adjective. Since an adjective(ADJ) cannot be used in a
subject position, the word “it” is used as the subject.
S V ADJ
It Was Windy and the rain beat down.
Sometimes a speaker wants to emphasize a noun and its relative clause.
The speaker uses “it” in the subject position followed by the verb “be”:
S V ADJ
It was who broke the window.
Sometimes a speaker wants to say that something exists, or wants to
mention the presence of something. The word “there” is used as the subject,
and the verb agrees with the noun or noun phrase(N PHR):
S V [NHPR]
There were six men in the boat.
(B) “It” can be used to refer to a previously stated topic. “It” can also be used to
fill the subject position (See (A)).
It was warm in the house and I was afraid the milk might spoil, so
I put it into the refrigerator.
The first “it” is used as the subject. The second “it” refers to the milk.
(C) “There” can be an adverb which tells where something is. ”There” can
also be used to fill the subject position. [See (A))].
There are three bottles of orange juice over there by the sink.
The first “there” is used to fill the subject position and indicates that three
bottles exist. The second “there” is an adverb which indicates where the
bottles are.
EXERCISE V 3:
All the following statements need a subject. Circle the letter of the correct subject
from the four possible choices.
Example:
are becoming endangered because their natural habitat
is being lost.
(A) That animals.
(B) Animals
(C) To be animals
(D) Being animals
You should circle (B) because the sentence needs a simple subject that agrees with
the plural verb.
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1. takes eight year after sowing.
(A) That nutmeg yields fruits.
(B) That the nutmeg yields fruits.
(C) For the nutmeg to yield fruit.
(D) To the nutmeg’s yielding fruit.
2. _______ has been used as a perfume for centuries.
(A) To use lavender.
(B) That the lavender.
(C) Lavender
(D) For the lavender
3. _______ shortens and thickens the muscles on either side of the jaw.
(A) The teeth clenching.
(B) Clenching the teeth
(C) That clenching the teeth.
(D) The teeth clenched.
4. Even though 26 percent of DELHI residents do not speak English in their homes,
only ______ speak English at all.
(A) That 6 percent of them
(B) Those of the 6 percent
(C) To the 6 percent of them
(D) 6 percent of them
5. started as a modern sport in India, at the same time that it did in
Europe.
(A) To ski
(B) That skiing
(C) Ski
(D) Skiing
6. was caused by a cow’s kicking over a lantern has been told to
American schoolchildren for several generations.
(A) That the Great Chicago Fire
(B) The Great Chicago Fire
(C) To burn in the Great Chicago Fire
(D) Burning in the Great Chicago Fire.
7. are effective means of communication.
(A) Theatre, music, dance, folk tales, and puppetry.
(B) That theatre, music, dance, folk tales and puppetry.
(C) To use theatre music, dance, folk tales, and puppetry.
(D) Using theatre, music, dance, folk tales and puppetry.
8. When China’s dramatic economic reforms began to encourage private
enterprise, began to set up a variety of business immediately.
(A) that entrepreneurs
(B) to be an entrepreneur.
(C) Entrepreneur.
(D) Entrepreneurs
9. are worthy of protection moved English Heritage historians into
action against developers.
(A) Some buildings in and around Fleet Street.
(B) That some buildings in and around Fleet Street
(C) Some buildings that are in and around Fleet Street.
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(D) To build in and around Fleet Street.
10. makes the mountain patrol team’s job interesting and fulfilling.
(A) Climbing and trekkers in distress are assisted.
(B) Assisting climbers and trekkers in distress
(C) Assistance is given to climbers and trekkers that are in distress.
(D) Climbers and trekkers in distress.
4. VERBS:
1. The verb may consist of a single word, or a main verb and one or more auxiliary
words (aux-words).
(A) The verb can indicate a state of being (What the subject is) or location.
Bhaskar is intelligent.
Raghu and Rahul are doctors.
Mahesh is at work.
(B) A verb can indicate what the subject is like or becomes.
That child seems frightened.
The book had become obsolete
(c) A verb can indicate an action. (What the subject id doing).
The students will finish in time.
My neighbour has bought a new car.
2. Verb indicates a point in time or period of time in the past, present, or future.
SIMPLE PRESENT:
(A) A present state of affairs. (A) My sister lives in Nagpur.
(B) a general fact. (B) The sun rises in the east.
(c) Habitual actions (C) I listen to the radio in the
mornings.
(D) Future timetables (D) My flight leaves at 10:00
PRESENT CONTINUOUS:
(A) A specific action that is occurring (A) Aravind is watching TV (right
now).
(B) A general activity that takes (B) My sister is living in
place over a period of time Mumbai. These days, I’m
taking it easy.
(C) Future arrangements (C) I’m inviting Hari to the party
on Friday.
SIMPLE PAST:
(A) An action that began and ended (A) The mail came early this
at a particular time in the past. Morning.
(b) An action that occurred over a (B) Dad worked in advertising
period of time but was completed for ten years.
in the past.
(c) an activity that took place ( C) We jogged every morning
regularly in the past. before class.
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PAST CONTINOUS:
(A) interrupted actions (A) I was sewing when the
telephone rang.
While I was sewing, the
Telephone rang.
(B) a continuous state over a (B) She was looking very ill.
period of time but was I was meeting lots of
completed in the past. People at that time.
(C) events planned in the past (C ) Neetu was leaving for calcutta
but had to make a last
minute connection.
PAST CONTINUOUS:
(A) Expressing a future intent (A) Jyothi is going to bring her
based on a decision made in sister tonight.
the past.
(B) Predicting an event that is (B) You are going to pass the
likely to happen in the future test. Don’t worry.
(C) Predicting an event that is (C) I don’t feel well. I am going
likely to happen based on the to faint.
present conditions.
FUTURE: (Will):
(A) Making a decision at the time (A) I will call you after lunch.
of speaking
(B) Predicting an event that is (B) you will pass the test. Don’t
likely happen in the future. worry
(C) Indicating willingness to do (C) If I don’t feel better soon, I
something will go to to the doctor.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS:
(A) An action that will be going at a (A) At noon tomorrow, I will be
particular time in the future taking the children to their piano
lessons.
(B) future actions which have already (B) I will be wearing my black
been decided dress to the dinner.
PRESENT PERFECT:
(A) An action that happened at an (A) She has never climbed a
unspecified time. mountain.
I’m sorry. I have forgotten your
Name.
(B) An action that has recently (B) He’s just gone to sleep.
occurred.
(C) An action that began in the past (C) Jack has lived in Madras all
and continues up to the present his life. I have been here
(often used with ”for” or “since”) since Monday. He’s known
her for two weeks.
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(D) an action that happened (D) We have flown across the
repeatedly before now. Pacific four times. I’ve failed my
driver’s test twice.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS:
(A) an action that began in the past (A) Have you been ringing the
and has just recently ended. Bell? I was in the bath.
(B) An action that began in the (B) Lokesh has been studying for
past and continues in the present. two hours.
( C) An action repeated over a ( C) Suresh has been smoking
period of time in the past and continuing since he was fifteen.
in present.
(D) A general action recently in progress (D) I’ve been thinking about
(no particular time is mentioned) going to college next year.
PAST PERFECT:
(A) An action that occurred before (A) Tarun had left hours before
before another past action. we got there.
(B) An action that was expected to (B) I had hoped to know about
occur in the past. the job before now.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS:
(A) An action that occurred before (A) They had been playing tennis
another past action before the storm broke.
His eyes hurt because he had been
Reading for eight hours.
(B) An action that was expected (B) I had been expecting a
to occur in the past change in his attitude.
FUTURE PERFECT:
(A) An action that will be completed (A) By next July, my parents will
before a particular time in the future have been married for fifty years.
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS:
(A) Emphasizing the length of time that (A) By May, my father will have
Has occurred before a specific time been working at the same job for
in the future. Thirty years.
3. Modals are always followed by the base form of a verb. They indicate mood or attitude.
can had better may must shall will
could have to might ought to should would
We can leave after 2:30(=We are able to leave).
We could leave after 2:30(This is possibility).
May
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Might
We had better leave after 2:30 (It is advisable……).
Ought to
Should
We must leave in the morning. (This is a necessity)
Have to
We shall leave in the morning. (future action.)
Will
We would leave every morning at 8:30. (This is past habit)
Modals have many meanings. Here are some special meanings you should
Know.
Must
I’m completely lost. I must have taken a wrong turn at the traffic light.
That man must be the new president.
In these sentences “must” is used to show that an assumption is being made.
When the assumption concerns a past action, it is always followed be “have”.
Cannot/could not
You can’t be hungry. We just ate!
He could’nt have taken the book. I had it with me.
In these sentences “cannot” and “couldn’t have” indicate impossibility.
ACTIVE/PASSIVE:
An active sentence focuses on the person or thing doing the action. A passive
Sentence focuses on the person or thing affected by the action.
Example: The tower was built at the turn of the century. (Someone built
the tower.)
Rebecca had been given the assignment. (Someone gave the
assignment to Rebecca.)
The passive voice is formed by the verb “be” in the appropriate tense followed
By the past participle of the verb.
Example:
Tense Active Passive
Present My brother washes our car every Our car is washed
weekend. every weekend.
INFINITIVES:
An infinitive is a verbal formed with “to” and the base form of the verb. It can be
used as a noun, an adverb, or an adjective.
To eat is a necessity. (Noun)
I came home to change. (adverb)
He always has money to spend. (adjective)
1. The following verbs can be followed by an infinitive:
afford consent hope prepare swear
agree decide intend pretend threaten
appear demand learn promise tend
arrange deserve manage refuse try
ask desire mean regret volunteer
attempt expect need seem wait
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beg fail offer struggle want
care forget plan strive wish
claim hesitate
Examples We agreed to go to the movies
Edward couldn’t afford to buy the ring
Tarun volunteered to work on the committee.
2. The following adjectives can be followed by an infinitive:
anxious difficult hard ready
boring eager pleased strange
common easy prepared usual
dangerous good
Examples: I am anxious to hear from him.
We were ready to leave in a hurry
It is dangerousto smoke near gasoline
3. The following verbs can be followed by a noun or pronoun and an infinitive.
advise convince force order teach
allow dare hire permit tell
ask encourage instruct persuade urge
beg expect invite remind want
cause forbid need require warn
challenge.
Examples: He advised me to buy a new car.
I persuaded my father to lend me the money
They hiredSalim to trim the lawn.
A gerund is formed by adding –ing to the base form of the verb. It is used as a noun.
Examples: Swimming is healthy for you. (subject)
You should try studying more (object)
He was suspected of cheating. (object of the preposition)
a. The following verbs can be followed by a gerund:
admit deny postpone resist
advise discuss practise resume
anticipate enjoy quit risk
appreciate finish recall suggest
avoid keep tolerate recommend
can’t help mention regret try
consider mind report understand
delay miss resent
Examples: We appreciated his giving us the car.
You finished writing the report
Lavanya enjoys playing tennis on weekends.
b. Some two-word verbs can be followed by gerunds:
aid in depend on put off
approve of give up rely on
insist on succeed in be better off
call for keep on think about
confess to think of look forward to
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count on object to worry about
Examples: you can count on his being there
I keep on forgetting her name.
Sam confessed to eating all the cakes.
c. Some adjective + prepositions can be followed by gerunds.
accustomed to intent on
afraid of interested in
capable of successful in
found of tired of
Example: Sunil accustomed to working long hours.
Ester is interested in becoming an artist.
I am afraid of catching another cold.
d. Some nouns + prepositions can be followed by gerunds.
choice of method of /for
excuse for possibility of
intention of reason for
Examples: I have no intention of driving to Mahabalipuram
Shiva had good excuse for arriving late.
There is a possibility of flying to Bhopal.
Interchange of infinitives and Gerunds:
a. Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or gerund without
difference in meaning:
Examples: I hate to go shopping.
I hategoing shopping
b. Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund, but there is
difference in meaning:
forget remember stop
Example: I stopped to buy tomatoes
(I stopped at the store and bought tomatoes)
I stopped buying tomatoes.
(I no longer buy tomatoes)
EXERCISE V 4:
Circle the letter of the verb that correctly completes the sentence.
Example:
The girl smiling broadly _________ the podium.
A. approaching
B. approached
C. approach
D. had been approached
1. In 1970, the Canadian scientist George Kell ________ that warm water freezes
more quickly than cold water.
A. proved
B. proving
C. proves
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D. prove
2. The rebuilding of the Inca capital Cuzco was _______ in the 1460’s
A. begun
B. beginning
C. began
D. begin
3. Only through diplomatic means can a formal agreement be ______.
A. reach
B. to reach
C. reaching
D. reached
4. People have been ________ exorcists with increasing frequency over the last
three years.
A. summoned
B. summoning
C. summons
D. summon
5. The film processing company has _______ a means of developing the 62-year-old
film that might solve the mystery.
A. devising
B. devised
C. been devised
D. devise
6. Platinum ______ a rare and valuable metal, white in colour, and next to silver and
gold, the easiest to shape.
A. is
B. was
C. has been
D. be
7. A great deal of thought has ______ into the designing of a concert hall
A. went
B. going
C. to go
D. been gone
8. The healthful properties of fibre have ________ for years.
A. known
B. be knowing
C. knew
D. been known
9. The vessel that sank may _______ the gold and jewels from the dowry of Aragon.
A. carry
B. be carried
C. have to carry
D. have been carrying
10. Galileo ______ his first telescope in 1609
A. builds
B. built
C. building
D. were build
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The usage of some connectives, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions
The following words are frequently seen on the various competitive tests.
and, or, but
either….or, neither…..nor, both…and
so….as, such….as
too, enough, so
many, much, few, little
like, alike, unlike
another, the others, other, others.
Usage of “and”, “or”, “and” “but”:
(1) (A) “and” joins two or more words, phrases, or clauses of similar value or
importance.
We went swimming and boating
We looked in the house and around the yard for the lost necklace.
We booked the flight, and we picked up the tickets the same day.
When “and” joins two subjects, the verb must be plural.
Swimming and boating are fun
(B) “Or” joins two or more words, phrases, or clauses that contain the idea of
choice.
We could go swimming or boating
We could look in the house or around the yard for the lost necklace
We could book the flight now, or we could wait until tomorrow.
(C) “But” shows a contrast between two or more words, phrases, or clauses.
We went swimming but not boating
We didn’t look in the house but we looked around the yard for the lost necklace.
We booked the flight, but we haven’t picked up the tickets.
(2). (A) “Either” is used with “or” to express alternatives.
We can either go to the party or stay at home and watch TV.
(B) “Neither” is used with “nor” to express negative alternatives.
He neither called nor came to visit me. (He didn’t call, and he didn’t visit
me)
(C) “Both” is used with “and” to combine two words, phrases, or clauses.
He has both the time and the patience to be a good parent.
(3) (A) “So” can connect two independent clauses. It means “therefore” or “as a
result”
She was hungry, so she ate early.
(B) “As” can be used to introduce an adverb clause. It can mean “while”, “like”,
“because”, “the way”, or “since”.
As I understood it, Manu was the winner. (“The way I understood it….”)
It began to snow as I was walking. (“It began to snow white I was walking”)
(C) “Such as” is used to introduce examples.
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He likes to wear casual clothes, such as a T-shirt, blue jeans…..
(4). (A) “Too” means more than necessary. It precedes an adjective or adverb.
The food was too cold to eat.
He ran too slowly to win the race.
(B) “Enough” means a sufficient amount or number. It follows an adjective or
adverb.
The day was warm enough for a picnic.
The girl swam fast enough to save her friend.
(C) “So” can be used in adverb clauses of cause/result, before adverbs and
adjectives. (The use of “that” in the examples below is optional)
The rain fell so hard (that) the river overflowed.
The boy ate are so many biscuits (that) he got a stomachache.
5. (A) “Many” and “few” are used with countable nouns.
Few cities are as crowded as Calcutta.
(B) “Much” and “little” are used with uncountable nouns.
They have made little progress on the contract.
6. (A) When “like” is a preposition followed by an object, it means “similar”
Like my father, I am an architect. (“My “father is an architect, and I am one
too”)
(B) “Unlike” is a preposition followed by an object and it means “not similar”.
Unlike my mother, her mother has a full-time job. (“Her mother has a full time
job, but my mother does not.)
(C) “Alike” can be an adverb meaning “equally” or an adjective meaning “similar”.
As an adverb. The fees increase was opposed by students and teachers alike.
As an adjective. My brother and sister are alike in many ways.
7. (A) “Another” + a singular noun means “one more”
I want another pear.
I want another one.
(B) “The other” +a plural noun means “the rest of the group”
This pear is rotten, but the other pears in the box are good.
(C) “The other” +a singular noun means “the last of the group being discussed”.
We bought three pears. My brother and I ate one each. We left the other pear
on the table.
(D) “The other” +an uncountable noun means “all the rest”
We put the oranges in a bowl and stored the other fruit in the refrigerator.
(E) “Other” +a plural noun means “more of the group being discussed”
There are other pears in the box.
(F) “Other” +an uncountable noun means “more of the group”.
There is other fruit besides pears in the box.
EXERCISE V-5:
If the underlined word is used incorrectly, write the correction in the space provided.
Example:
Alexander likes both apples or bananas. and
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1. All but one of the fourteen colossal heads were toppled by earthquakes.
________
2. The eggs are boiled or then peeled. _________
3. The land provides people not only with food and clothing, and houses and
buildings as well. __________
4. Antiochus I claimed descent from both Alexander the Great and the Persian
monarch King Darius. __________
5. Sheep provide both milk for cheese or wool for clothing. __________
6. In 1927, critics gave bad reviews to Buster Keaton’s film The General, which is
now regarded as both a classic or the best work of a cinematic genius. ________
7. There are remains of Rajput art and architecture as the cusped arches and traces
of painting on the ceiling. __________
8. Organisms respond to stimuli so pressure, light and temperature. _______
9. The revival of the ancient art of tapestry-making has provided too jobs in the
village for everyone. _____________
10. The students were too eager to use the computers that they skipped their lunch
break. __________
11. Little scientists doubt the existence of an ozone hole over the Polar Regions.
_________
12. The rhinoceros has few natural enemies. __________
13. The Express Film Festival exists, like most film festivals, for the purpose of
awarding prizes. _____________
14. The harpsichord is a keyboard instrument alike the piano. ________
15. One of Mar’s two moons is called Phobos and other is called Deimos. _______
16. Wool, as well as certain other fabrics, can cause skin irritation. __________
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Adjectives and adverbs have three forms that show a greater or lesser degree
of the characteristic of the basic word: the positive, the comparative, and the
superlatives. The basic word is called the positive. The comparative is used to refer
to two persons, things or groups. The superlative is used to refer to more than two
persons, things or groups; it indicates the greatest or least degree of the quality
named. Most adjectives of one syllable become comparative by adding “-er” to the
ending and become superlative by adding “-est” to the ending. In adjectives ending
with “Y”, the “Y” changes to “i” before adding the endings.
Examples of comparison of adjectives:
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
Little less least
Happy happier happiest
Late later latest
Lovely lovelier loveliest
Brave braver bravest
Long longer longest
Friendly friendlier friendliest
Fast faster fastest
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Shrewd shrewder shrewdest
Tall taller tallest
Adjectives of two or more syllables usually form their comparative degree by adding
“more” (or “less”) and form their superlative degree by adding “most”(or “least”).
Examples of comparison of adjectives of two or more syllables:
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
Handsome more handsome most handsome
Less handsome least handsome
Timid more timid most timid
Less timid least timid
Tentative more tentative most tentative
Less tentative least tentative
Valuable more valuable most valuable
Less valuable least valuable
Endearing more endearing most endearing
Less endearing least endearing
Some adjectives are irregular, their comparatives and superlatives are formed by
changes in the words themselves.
Examples of comparison of irregular adjectives.
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
Good better best
Many
Much more most
Some
Bad worse worst
Little less least
Far farther farthest
Further furthest
DEFINITION: farther-referring to a physical distance
Further-referring to a differing degree, time or quality.
Adverbs are compared in the same way as adjectives of more than one syllable: by
adding “more” (or “less”) for the comparative degree and “most”(or “least”) for the
superlative.
Examples of comparison of adverbs:
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
Easily more easily most easily
Less easily least easily
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Quickly more quickly most quickly
Less quickly least quickly
Truthfully more truthfully most truthfully
Less truthfully least truthfully
Some adverbs are irregular, some add “-er” or “-est”
Examples of comparison of irregular adverbs:
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
Little less least
Well better best
Far farther farthest
Badly worse worst
Soon sooner soonest
Much more most
Hard harder hardest
Close closer closest
The comparative and the superlative indicate not only the difference in the degree of
the quality named, but also in the number of things discussed.
Use the comparative to compare two things:
1. Mary is the more lazy of the two.
2. I’ve tasted creamier cheese than this.
3. James is the shorter of the two boys.
4. Of the two, I like Gail better.
5. My teacher is kinder than yours.
6. This book is more interesting than that one.
Use the superlative to compare more than two things:
1. Mary is the laziest girl I know.
2. This is the creamiest cheese I’ve ever tasted.
3. James is the shortest boy in the class.
4. Of those five people, I liked Gail best.
5. My teacher is the kindest in the school.
6. This book is the most interesting of the three.
There are some words to which comparison does not apply, since they already
indicate the highest degree of a quality.
Here are some examples:
Immediately Superlative First
Last very unique
Uniquely universally perfect
Perfectly exact complete
Correct dead deadly
Preferable round perpendicularly
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Square third supreme
Totally infinitely immortal
ERRORS TO AVOID IN COMPARISON
Do not combine two superlatives:
Incorrect: That was the most bravest thing he ever did.
Correct: That was the bravest thing he ever did.
Incorrect: He grew up to be the most handsomest boy in the town.
Correct: He grew up to be the most handsome boy in the town.
Do not combine two comparatives:
Incorrect: Mary was more friendlier than Susan.
Correct: Mary was friendlier than Susan.
Incorrect: The puppy was more timider last week.
Correct: The puppy was more timid last week.
PREPOSITIONS
Prepositions are small words that show the relationship between one word
and another. Prepositions in the following sentences show the position of the paper
in relation to the desk, the book, his hand and the door.
The paper is “on” the desk.
The paper is “under” the book.
The paper is “ in” his hand.
The paper is “by” the door.
COMMON PREPOSITIONS:
About at by in onto toward
Above before concerning inside out under
Across behind despite into over until
After below down like since up
Against beneath during near through upon
Along beside except of throughout with
Amid between for off till within
Among beyond from on to without
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
The prepositional phrases consist of a preposition and an object. The object is a noun
or pronoun.
PREP OBJ
Into the house
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Prep obj
Above it
The noun can have modifiers.
Prep obj
Into the old broken-down house
Correct position:
(A) Prepositional phrases that are used as adverbs can take various positions.
The city park is just around the corner.
Just around the corner is the city park.
“Around the corner” answers the question “ where is the city park?” and therefore is
used like an adverb.
(B) Preposition phrases that are used as adjectives follow the noun they describe.
Noun_____prep phrases___
I walked into the house with the sagging porch.
“with the sagging porch” describes the house and therefore is used like an adjective.
Various meanings of one preposition.
Some prepositions have several meanings.
I hung the picture on the wall. (upon)
I bought a book on philosophy. (about)
I called her on the phone. (using)
I worked on the research committee. (with)
REDUNDANCIES
(A) When two words have essentially the same meaning, use one or the other, but
not both.
Correct: It was important.
It was extremely important.
Incorrect: It was very, extremely important.
Because “very” and “extremely” have essentially the same meaning, they should not
be used together.
Correct: Money is required for research to advance.
Money is required for research to move forward.
Incorrect: Money is required for research to advance forward.
The word “advance” indicates, “going forward”. Therefore, the word “forward” is
unnecessary.
(B) In general, avoid these combinations:
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advance forward repeat again
join together reread again
new innovations return back
only unique revert back
proceed forward same identical
progress forward sufficient enough
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DATA INTERPRETATION
Data interpretation (or analysis) has the objective of presenting quantative facts in
different ways, to facilitate highlighting of different aspects of or different
perceptions in a quantitative situation. To this end quantitative data are expressed in
purely verbal terms or depicted visually, or by a combination of both modes of
expression. The test usually involves the understanding of data presented in one
way, followed by analysis of it and re-presenting it in a different way. The customary
multiple-choice responses are given, and one has to opt for one of them as the one
that best meets the needs.
Data can be presented in several forms:
The Tabular form:
In this kind, a table of figures is given; together with details on what the rows
and columns of the table represent. Questions are then posed based on these.
Given below is a table of statistics relating to the commercial performance of Gujarat
Ambuja Cements in 3 successive years. Answer questions 5,6 and 7 following this,
on the basis of this information.
3 years’ performance of Gujarat Ambuja cements:
June’95 June’96 June’97
A. Income 429.23 720.79 929.08
B. Operating profit 165.00 267.20 301.28
C. Interest 35.42 65.86 84.00
D. Gross profit 129.58 201.34 216.38
E. Depreciation 30.39 59.73 81.16
F. PBT 99.19 141.61 135.22
G. Taxes 0.09 0.05 3.11
H. Net profit 99.10 141.56 132.11
I. Equity capital 62.25 72.61 814.42
J. Reserve 410.61 713.61 814.42
Q.1: (c) Considering the item labels A, B, C etc., at the left, which of the following
relationships can be taken to be true?
I. I A-C-E = F
II. II F-G = H
III. III G+H = B-C-E
(a) All three (b) I and III only (c) II and III only (d) I and II only
(e) None of I, II and III
Solution: By checking out each of I, II and III against their respective meanings and
figures in the table for any particular column, say June’95, we notice the following: -
Ignoring decimals, A-C-E = 429-35-30 = 364
F = 99
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? Possibility I is wrong and thus choices a, b, and d are all inapplicable.
Before rejecting all and marking e, check c. i.e. II & III.
II. F-G =99.19 – 0.09 = 99.10 = H: True
Now check against June’96 (next column)
141.61 – 0.05 = 141.56 = H: True
and against June’97 135.22 - 3.11 = 132.11 = H :True
III. G + H: This must be F (as seen above)
B-C-E = (June’95) 165-35.42 - 30.39 = 99.19
(The same can be verified for June’96 & June’97)
Thus statements II & III being true, the correct response is (c)
Note: A basic knowledge of business terms and norms – which incidentally is
presupposed in the candidate, and even tested in some exams like FMS, BIM, MAT
and others – obviates the need for all these computations:
According to the significance of the letters A, B, C etc.
With reference to the table,
A is income, B is operating profit, C is interest and so on.
Checking out relations I, II, III, We see
(I) A-C-E = A-(C+E) = Income = (Interest + depreciation)
(II) This is not equal to F, Which is the profit before tax (PBT)
? (I) is wrong.
(III) F-G = H
i.e. PBT –Tax = Net profit (true)
(IV) G + H (i.e. Net profit + tax) = profit before tax and PBT = operating profit –
(interest + depreciation) – which is true.
? II & II alone are true.
Q.2: Which of the following figures could approximate to the percentage of gross
profit of the company in June’95?
(a) 29 (b) 30 (c) 31 (d) 32
Solution: Gross profit % is reckoned as the gross profit amount expressed as a
percentage of the turnover or total income i.e. :
429.23
129.58
this figure could be
approximated to ,
42
12
or
43
13
or
430
130
with an approximate value of 2/7 or 28 4/7%
Among the answer choices, (a) & (b) could fit. Elimination of (c) and (d) can be
done, with some risk of error. In a word, short of actually working out ,
429.23
129.58
then
seems to be no way of hitting on the best choice among a, b, c, & d.
To avoid loss of time, we work on an inspection method, i.e. from the response
choices. Remember that the true result of ,
429.23
129.58
must be equivalent to 29%,
30%, 31% or 32%. So we work on significant values only and not on actual values.
(Read note on short-cut methods in this section)
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Choose (b) 30% first, as it is easiest to work with, Let us say
429.23
129.58
=30% or 0.3
If
y
x
=z, then x = yz
? Cross multiply: 429.23 x 0.3 – 128.769
The numerator number is 129.58, which is very close.
? The value obtained is 30%
To check whether 30 is the closest, you must now take 1% of 429.23 i.e.4.2923, and
subtract it from 128.769. You will get 128.769 = 4.2923 = 124.4767, which is
obviously smaller than the true numerator 129.58 by a bigger amount than the 30%
result, 128.769, is larger than it. ?Between (a) & (b), (b) is the better result, It is
clear c and d cannot be better than b.
? b is the best result and ?the correct response.
0.29
0.30
0.31
0.32
In short steps:
1. =
429.23
128.58
2. Rewrite as ?
42923
12858
29,3,31,32 (in significant terms)
3. Start with 3 (easiest): 3
42923
12858
?
4. Cross multiply: 12858
128769 12877
3 42923
? ÷
? ×
? The result obtained by 3(30%) is larger
? Try 29 i.e. 1% less than 30% (of 429.63)
i.e. 4.2963 less.
5. 128769
42963
-----------
1244727 ÷ 12447
-----------
i.e. 128.58 ? 12447
The difference between the true value and the value obtained by taking 20%
is larger than that obtained by taking 30%. Thus 30% is a better approximation and
the response is b.
Q.8. Which of the following statements is borne out by the data in the table?
(a) Improvement in the Co’s income in the 2nd one-year period was
2
1
1 times the
improvement in the first, for the 2-year period shown.
(b) Tax rate was higher in June’96 than in June’97, but less than in June’95
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(c) The percentage growth in gross profit in the first one year of operation shown is
about 32%
(d) None of these.
Solution: you have to check out each one of a, b, c separately. You may start with
‘b’, which seems to be shortest, on the off chance that if it happens to be true, you
will have achieved the maximum economy in time.
Choice b: “Tax rate “ refers to the statutory norm fixed. There is no clue about this in
the table. However, you do see a “Taxes” figure and a figure for “PBT”(profit before
tax), viz. G and F. The value of (G/F x 100) gives the “percentage of tax paid” in
each of the years. This may not be the same as the “tax rate”, and ? should not be
taken. In fact, just to put you in the wrong track, the figures are:
Percent tax paid in June’95= 100% 9% *
99.19
0.09
× =
Percent tax paid in June’96= % *
3
1
100% 3
141.61
0.05
× =
And percent tax paid in June’97 = % *
9
2
100% 2
135.22
3.11
× =
(* The numerical short cuts are explained in a separate para at the end of this
section).
This bears out that the % tax paid was higher in ’96 than in ’97, but less than in ’95,
and you might have interpreted this as tax rate and, marked (b) wrongly.
Choice (a):
Co’s income in 97 =929.08
Co’s income in 96 =720.79
______________________________
Improvement in 96/97
(2nd annual period) =208.29
______________________________
Co’ s income in ’96 =720.79
Co’ s income in ’95 =429.23
______________________________
Improvement in 95/96
(1st annual period) =291.56
______________________________
As 208.29 is clearly less than 291.56, statement (a) can be seen to be incorrect.
(b) Growth in gross profit in a year =
( ) ( )
Earlier year's grossprofit
Later year's grossprofit earlier year's grossprofit
The earlier year's grossprofit
Increasein grossprofit fromthat year to thenext
-
=
For the “first one-year”, i.e. 95.96 the figures are
129
42
129
201 159
=
-
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=32.5% i.e. about 32%
This statement is true and thus (c) is the proper response.
Note : Sometimes, data is presented in statement form like this,
Qn. 1: The turnover of company A is 20% less then that of Co., B. If Co. B makes a
gross profit of 25%, what % of the turnover of A would this represent?
(a) 22 (b) 30 (c) 40 (d) 26
Solution: (This is just a problem in mathematics, or more precisely, in numerical
conception.)
This could be answered in several ways, one of which is the one below:
Turn-over of A = 20% less than turnover of B
= (100 – 20) % of B’s =80% B’s turnover
? B’s turnover =
80%
100%
of A’s
B’s gross profit =24% of B’s turnover
= 24% x
80%
100%
of A’s turnover = 30% (b)
Problem 1:
Year Total people killed # of people killed in coal
mines
86 1230 415
87 1150 395
88 1300 406
89 946 324
90 1040 256
91 1250 115
92 1154 108
93 948 121
94 1278 285
95 846 89
Problem 2:
Year Thermal Hydel Nuclear Total
70 7,900 6,390 420 14,710
71 8,200 6,610 420 15,230
72 8,900 6,780 420 16,100
73 9,100 6,965 640 16,705
74 10,150 7,530 640 18,320
75 11,000 8,500 640 20,140
76 12,000 9,200 640 21,840
77 13,000 9,880 640 23,520
78 15,200 10,200 800 26,200
79 16,700 10,450 800 27,950
80 19,000 11,000 800 30,800
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Data Sufficiency
Data sufficiency problems can be broadly classified in terms of (a) subject content
and (b) format.
The subject content could be quantitative or non-quantitative. Some tests like
BIM, Anna University, MAT etc., stress only the quantitative. Others like CAT, MAT,
XLRI and many others include logical, analytical or common sense quantitative
patterns, which may generally be termed non-quantitative.
The format contains 2 statements and a question, or sometimes 3 statements
and a question (some times this is seen only in XLRI). The answer choices may be 4
or 5. The 4-choice pattern adopted by CAT, MAT, S P Jain and sometimes XLRI takes
the following pattern,
In order to answer the question, mark
A. If the question is answerable from the first statement alone.
B. If the question is answerable from the second statement alone
C. If the question can be answered with the help of both statement 1 and
statement 2.
D. If the question cannot be answered even with both the statements.
The 5-choice pattern options are
In order to answer from the questions, mark
A. If it answerable from statement 1 alone.
B. If it is answerable from statement 2 alone.
C. If it is answerable from both statement 1 and statement 2.
D. If it is answerable from either 1 or 2, mutually independently.
E. If it is not answerable for want of sufficient statements.
The XLRI pattern sometimes has 3 statements 1, 2 & 3
In answering the question the student will mark as the response choice A, B, C, D or
E as
A. If a particular statement alone can answer the question
B. If a particular pair of statements alone can answer the question.
C. If any one pair of statements can answer the question unambiguously
D. If all three statements are necessary and sufficient to answer the given
question and
E. If the question cannot be answered for want of sufficient statements
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REASONING
General Guidelines and Illustrations
With or without our knowledge, reasoning or logic is always at the root of our
mind in all our activities. Before we make a statement we think of what is already in
our memory about it, and combine it with what now comes to our attention, and
draw a conclusion. When we see a road sign with an arrow pointing left, we are able
to “read” it and take a turn left, because we have a recollection of what the mark of
an arrow signifies and relate it to the arrow we see and draw our inference. All this is
instantaneous and almost involuntary. It is well known that we are faster at such
work when the context or environment is familiar to us, but tend to take more time it
is not. If the basic logic is clear, this should not be so. It is this basic logical sense
that is tested in this part of an Aptitude Test. The situation could be one of a
multitude of different types, but can be broadly classified as shown below.
Reasoning
© ENTRAN
Non-verbal Verbal
Pictorial Non-pictorial Analytical Logical Evaluation
Situation Data
Arguments Data Critical
Sufficiency Reasoning
NON-VERBAL REASONING
I. Pictorial: Qn: is related to as as
is
??
??•
: ? : ?
Related to which of the 4 figures below?
? ? ?? ?
•?? ??• •??• •??•
?? ?? ? ??
A B C D
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Steps in solution:
Note the changes from Pic.1 to Pic.2
1. Arrow direction reversed.
2. One large black dot added at the back end of the arrow (opposite to the sharp
point)
3. Two small black dots on the left side of the arrow move on to its right side
(Note: reference is to the direction in which the arrow points)
4. One extra small black dot appears at the end other than the sharp end of the
arrow.
These changes in Pic.3 done below, in four steps.
??
??•
Original:
•??
??
First Change:
??
•??
Second Change:
??
Third Change: •??•
??
•??•
?
Fourth Change:
The response should thus be C.
II. Non-Pictorial Reasoning:
(a). Letter Coding
Question: The word RHINO is coded as POJIS. With this system operating, what
would the coded word ZGJOHJT signify in normal English?
Response: (a) HASTILY (b) TASTEFUL (c) SERIOUS
(d) SIGNIFY
Steps in Solution:
Step 1: Number of letters is the same in the original and in code. (This condition is
met in all the responses except (b)).
Against 7 letters in the original word and its coded equivalent, and all the response
choices (a) to (d), only (b) have eight letters. Therefore (b) cannot be an answer,
and should not be considered in the succeeding steps.
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Step 2: Common systems of coding are the next letter in the alphabet to denote that
letter, i.e. A in the word is coded as B, E as F; W as X, etc., Similarly, it may be the
previous word, i.e. We could use A to code B or F to signify G.
Neither of these systems seems to work for RHINO coded POJIS.
Step 3: In another common system, the original or lead word is written in reverse,
i.e. RHINO would be coded as ONIHR. Apparently this is not the key.
Step 4: It would be a combination of coding systems of step2 and step3, viz., RHINO
reversed s ONIHR (step 3)
Now adopt step 2:
R becomes S
H becomes I
I becomes J SIJOP.
N becomes O
O becomes P
The interim code is SIJOP.
By rule 3, this must be reversed to give POJIS
Step 5: Now repeat these steps in reverse, on the problem coded word ZGJOHJT
----- TJHOJGZ
SIGNIFY
Answer choice: (d)
(b). Letter-sets
Consider the three ways of combining the letters of the English alphabet,
numbered I, II and III. Each follows certain logic. This is the data. The
problem on the basis of one of the logics contained in these. Identify each of
the questions 1, 2,3 as relatable to one of I, II or III, making your response
as a, b or c; if none of these fit, mark (d).
DATA: I xyz II ywu III azf
Questions: 1. hfd 2. hsn 3. qrs
Step 1: Examine the sets I, II and III to try to establish the rationale by which each
of them is formed. It may be helpful to write down the alphabet letters in sequence
in one line, and below them, the numbers 1 to 26, and below these, the letters in
reverse, to solve such problems, as shown:
a b c d e …………………………..x y z
1 2 3 4 5 …………………………24 25 26
z y x w v…………………………..c b a
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However, this system of working may not be necessary in the exam, if you
get used to doing such exercises which you will in the course of your work, by
applying it and thereby become quite adapt.
Code I,
Step 1: xyz, is obviously based just on successive letters of the
alphabet.
Step 2: Search for this pattern. It can be seen at once that the third
question- set, qrs, consisting of the alphabet letters in series, takes
after I (which is your response).
Code II, Step1: y w u is in reverse skipping letters alternately.
Step 2: y w u may be seen as u w y in reverse.
Step 3: Add the successive letter between every 2 letters as seen
below:
V X
U W Y. So this is the logic. Among the remaining question
sets, only h f d, is in the reverse
Step4: Reverse the order d f h
e g
Step 5: Add the missing letters d f g
? Question set 1 fallows code II
Code III a z f: The just a positioning of a, z (the first and last letters of the
alphabet) is striking. This is followed by f, the fifth letter from “a”.
Question Set 3. h s n
Step 1: You can identify ‘h’ as the eighth letter from ‘a’ and ‘s’ as the eighth
letter from ‘z’ backward.
This conforms to code III.
But ‘n’ is the sixth letter counting forward from ‘h’, By code III, it is the fifth
letter from ‘h’, which should appear in this place.
? h should be followed by ‘m’ and not ‘n’.
Question set 3 does not conform to I, II and III, and you have to mark your
response to it as (d).
NON-PICTORIAL: (c) Word coding: (sometimes described as language
code)
In a certain language:
“Na vu ju ku” means “ I don’t like you”.
“Oms er mur” means “ mangoes are sweet”.
“Mur ku ju chi” means “ I like sweet things”.
How would you say “ You are not sweet” in this language?
Assume four answer choices are given, only one of which is correct.
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Step 1: Make markings on the question paper as below. Marking the question
paper is permitted. In case it is not, you will have to rewrite the given
sentences. (This will take some of your time, no doubt, but cannot be
helped). Underscore of use some mark to identify the same words, separately
in the 2 columns.
Na vu ju ku I don’t like you.
x xx
Oms er mur Mangoes are sweet.
x xx
Mur ku ju chi I like sweet things.
Step 2: Comparing the marks we may say that the set (ju, ku) means the set
(I like) Individual relating of the 2 pairs cannot be done.
Also ‘mur’ can refer only to ‘sweet’. Since 3 of the 4 words in the left column
are relatable to 3 of the 4 words in the right; by elimination, (chi) must
denote ‘things’. Thus the sentence, “I like sweet things” expressed in the new
language must contain the words ‘ju ku mur chi’.
NON-PICTORIAL: (d) Sentence coding:
The coding version of the saying “a stitch in time saves nine” works out as
“Prap pa qraz bazzyc x tryxy” The words in the coded version are jumbled as
also the letters of each word of the sentence.
Qn.1: Which of the following could be the code for STRIVE by this system?
(a) yzmptr (b) yzqatr (c) yzhbtr (d) yzntrz
Solution: You must learn to make use of the answer choices as data, if you
wish to get the best advantage. Also, you can in most cases eliminate certain
response choices as being unsuited. Thus in this question and its responses,
note these points.
Step 1: The lead word “STRIVE” has all 5 of its letters different.
In answer choice (d), z is repeated. ?(d) Cannot be the right choice
2. All choices from (a) to (c) begin with y and in r and the first and last letters of the
lead words are S and E.
3. ‘y’ represents S and ‘r’ represents E
4. Also z and t occupy the 2nd and 5th positions, and hence
5. z in the code should denote T in the normal and the t in the code should denote V
in the normal
6. Thus the R and I of the lead word “STRIVE” should appear in code, as one those
seen in choices
a, b, c only.
i.e.(R,I) must be coded as (m, p) , (q, a) or (h, b)
7. Going by the lead sentences and the (jumbled) code, compare words of 1 letter
(a) 2 letters (in), 3 letters (none), 4 letters (nine, time) 5 letters (saves) and 6
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letters (stitch), Re-arranging, ‘A stitch in time saves nine would read in code as ‘x
yzazbc ap zaqr yxtry papr’
8. Confirm that these are the words, which indeed appear jumbled in code.
We are looking for the equivalents of R and I; we find that ‘R’ does not appear
in the lead sentence; however, ‘I’ appears 4 times. In
STITCH coded as yzazbc
IN coded as ap
TIME coded as za
NINE coded as papr
9. ‘I’ is the only letter common to all words in the left column. The only letter
common to all words in the right column is ‘a’ and ?’I’ is coded as ‘a’.
‘R’ ‘I’ must be written as q, a ?R = q
10. This points to response (b) as the appropriate choice.
This may appear to be long and arduous. That is only because of the writing,
which is the mode of communication. When you are thinking, your communication is
with yourself, and the process is infinitely faster, provided you know the method.
NON-PICTORIAL: (e) Mathematical Reasoning
This requires you to be sound on your basics in regard to mathematical concepts
(from Standard I). The level of mathematical knowledge required is standard X. Here
are some samples.
1. Given that kx-1y = m%, what is the value of m in terms of k, x and y?
Solution:
Assume answer choices are given. The basic question here is how do you
convert a number
(kx-1y) into its percentage equivalent?
If you have forgotten what the teacher told you in II or III std, when she started
“percent” for your class, ask yourself, “ 50%
2
1
= . How do I get it?” of course, the
logic is 100 50
2
1
× =
?
2
1 is equivalent to 50%. In other words, as the teacher said, “ to get the
percentage equivalent of any quantity, just multiply it by 100 and add the sign %”
Thus if kx-1y = m%
Then m= kx-1y × 100 or 100 kx-1y
As further test, this answer may not appear as such in the choices, which could read:
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(a)
100y
kx
(b)
y
100kx
(c)
0.01x
ky
(d) none of these
You may be tempted to mark (d), but that would be wrong. All you have to
remember is that kx-1y has ky in the numerator.
?Answer (c) must draw your attention.
0.01in the denominator is the same as 100 in the numerator, and x-1 has x in the
denominator.
Thus (c) is the right response.
VERBAL REASONING:
In this type of reasoning test, the use of words in sentences and the
sentences themselves are significant. In other words, meanings play a part in the
total reasoning process. Again the importance of these “meanings” also varies, as we
shall see .The objective of each of the three mental exercises classified under this
head is described below.
Analytical Reasoning:
A set of data is given, relating to a common, real-life situation, such as 4 married
couples in 4 different flats in a building, some owning one or more vehicles of given
descriptions; the occupations of the eight persons are also given. Based only on
these facts (data), you are to answer some questions.
Logical Reasoning:
An argument or a theory (based on observed phenomena) may be given. You are
invited to analyse the plausibility or validity of the inference made by the author,
drawn from his own given stand point.
Evaluative Reasoning:
A real (or fictitious) situation is described. In Data Evaluation such a situation is
mostly of business significance. Questions on this require you to judge the
significance and relative importance of certain aspects of the significance and relative
importance of certain aspects of the data or related items. Your judgment will then
be classified on the basis of four or more broad patters outlined in the test, into one
of which each aspect has to be fitted by you as the most appropriate.
In situation evaluation, you will have to exercise your mind in a similar way,
but with reference to some aspects of an entire situation, and not just individual
data. Here too you conform to a certain structural classification stipulated by the
examiner. Such a system of questioning not only aids the examiner in the process of
evaluating the candidates’ responses in an objective way but also directs the
candidates’ thinking on to more focused judgment.
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An offshoot of logical reasoning is the very familiar pattern of Data
Sufficiency. As its name implies, your powers of judgment are brought to bear upon
the question of whether a set of data available to you can possibly answer certain
questions relating to them; or putting it differently, you are to estimate the degree of
usefulness of given evidence to facilitate an unambiguous judgment.
Data Sufficiency can be based entirely on quantitative details or nonquantitative.
Both kinds find the place in MBA Entrance tests.
Analytical Reasoning (non-quantitative):
Consider the situation below, which is followed by a few questions based on the data
presented.
Sankar is neither a doctor nor a businessman; Vijay is not married to Kumar,
nor Asha to Raj; Shashi’s husband is not a doctor, nor Raj, an engineer; Mohan is a
lecturer; the engineer is not married to Shashi; Kusum’s husband is not an engineer
and Rani has married a businessman. All male names refer to men and female
names to women. There are 4 married couples in the group and each man
(as also each woman) is married only once. Each man follows one and only one of
the professionals mentioned below.
Qn.1. Who is the doctor’s wife?
(a) Kusum (b) Asha (c) Shashi (d) Data inadequate
Solution: As you can see, AR (Analytical Reasoning) can involve going through a
good deal of written mater. As we read the matter, in the majority of cases, our
mind registers little or nothing, and when we take up the first question relating to
the data, we start reading the data all over again, or perhaps start scanning all the
lines of the data, searching for details concerned with the items in the question. The
time spent on our first reading of the data thus goes waste- which should be
avoided. Recognizing the well-established truth that a picture (table, chart of graph)
is better understood (and more quickly, too) than a paragraph, what one should do
is to translate the date into a visual, on one reads it.
Steps in Solution:
1. You can see at a glance (at even the respose choices to the questions) that
are 4 men, their 4 professions and their wives.
2. Take the data: Sankar is neither a doctor nor a businessman. A possible
development of the chart is as below.
Name Businessman Doctor Engineer Lecturer
1. Sankar × ×
2.
3.
4.
The cross represents negation
3. Vijay is not married to Kusam, nor Asha to Raj
Raj is not an engineer. Mohan is a lecturer.
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The table builds up as below.
Name Doctor Businessman Engineer Lecturer Kusam Asha Rani
1. Sankar × ×
2.Vijay ×
3. Raj × ×
4.Mohan ??
4. To visualize the data: Shashi is not married to a doctor; The engineer is not
married to Shashi; Kusam’s husband is not an engineer and Rani has married a
businessman, we will have to add vertically to the table and fill the new data:
Doc busi engin lect. Kusam Asha Shashi Rani
1. Sankar × ×
2. Vijay ×
3. Raj × ×
4. Mohan ??
Doctor ×
Engineer × ×
Businessman ??
Lecturer
As mentioned, the table grows as you read and also can be filled up.
5. Start further build-up from where you get a positive data, like ‘Rani has
married a businessman’. This indicated by a tick (??) at the meeting point of the
vertical line from ‘Rani’ down and the horizontal line from ‘Businessman’ right.
6. You can now mark all the other 3 spaces vertically and horizontally from ?? with x,
and proceed to go on, into other sections, as far as you can. After you do this the
table takes the form shown below.
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Name doc busi engr lect kusam Asha Shashi Rani
1.Sankar × × ?? × × ?? × ×
2. Vijay × ?? × × × × × ??
3. Raj ?? × × × ?? × × ×
4. Mohan × × × ?? × × ?? ×
Doc × ?? × ×
Busi × × × ??
Engi ?? × × ×
Lect × × ?? ×
At this stage, the answer to the question ‘who is the doctor’s wife can be seen as
‘Asha’. Now you can tackle more questions:
Q2. Who is the husband of Kusam?
(a) Mohan (b) Sankar (c) Raj (d) Vijay
Q3. What is Sankar’s profession?
(a) Businessman (b) Engineer (c) Lecturer (d) Doctor
Q4. Who is the doctor?
(a) Sankar (b) Raj (c) Vijay (d) Mohan
Q5. If the lecturer and the businessman are brothers, which of the following are codaughters-
in- law?
(a) Shashi & Asha (b) Asha & Kusam (c) Kusam & Shashi (d) Shashi &
Rani
Solutions:
2. c; 3.b; 4.b; 5.d
Analytical Reasoning (Quantitative):
Mr. & Mrs. V live with their grandsons U, B, R and D. The boy’s parents M and J live
in a different country.
1. In 1976 U was 4 years and D 7 years old.
2. When the V’s got married, they were 18 and 14 respectively, the man
being older.
3. R was born when B was 9.
4. J was 23 when U was born.
5. Mrs. V was 52 when D was born.
6. B was 13 years old in 1987.
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Solution:
You have build up on the basis of the data.
Age in
1976 1987
U (Data 1) 4 15
D (Data 1) 7 18
J (Data 4) 4+ 23 = 27 38
Mrs. V (Data 5) 18+ 52 = 70
Mr. V (Data 2) 70 + 4 = 74
B (Data 6) 13
R (Data 3) 13 – 9 = 4
Note: The data are to be taken in the order, which will enable you to arrive at
specific figures in the 1976 column or 1987 column, and therefore they need not
necessarily be in the given serial order from 1 to 6. Now let us consider some
questions.
1. The oldest among the boys is.. (Ans: D, 18)
2. Mr. V’s age in 1976 was ………………(Ans: 74 –11 = 63)
3. How old was J when R was born? (Ans: J-R = 38 –4 = 34)
4. U was born in………………………………..(Ans: 1976 – 4 = 1972)
5. If M is 6 years older than J, his age at the time B was born was..(Ans: 38 +
6-13 = 31)
Logical Reasoning:
This is somewhat wider in its scope and patterns then analytical reasoning. Here we
go more by relationships expressed between persons, facts or situations than by the
true meanings of the words used. The number of question patterns here could be
very large, as seen in the following examples. This is because it has to do with
argument.
Q1. Given that “all the oranges in the basket are sweet “ is a true statement, we
conclude that three can be no oranges in this basket, which are not sweet. In this
conclusion
(a) True (b) Probably True (c) False (d) Probably false
(e) Of doubtful truth
The answer as you can argue, is (a). If all the oranges are sweet, how can you have
even one which is otherwise?
Q2. Given that the statement “ all the oranges in the basket are sweet” is a false
one, we decide that there is no point in looking for a sweet orange in the basket. In
this decision
(a) Correct (b) Incorrect (c) Probably correct (d) Probably incorrect
(e) Of doubtful soundness
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In this case, the correct response would be (e) the argument?
The statement “all oranges in the basket are sweet” is false.
Therefore “ Not (all the oranges in the basket are sweet”) must be a true statement.
i.e. It is correct to conclude that all oranges in the basket are not sweet- may be
some are, but one cannot be sure. The conclusion that none of the oranges can be
sweet is farfetched.
? The response (e) is the most suited.
Q3. “If you study well, you can be sure you will succeed”.
Since Mohan succeeded, one may conclude that Mohan must have studied
well. Is this conclusion (a) sound (b) not sound?
You may feel tempted to mark (a) as your choice, but the proper response is (b).
Studying well leads to success, according to the main statement. It does not follow
that studying well is the only means, which gives success. So how can you conclude
with certainly that Mohan’s success was the result of studying well alone? For
example, A bus in Route No.12 B takes you to Panagal park; from that, how can you
conclude that any one who reached Panagal park must have done so by taking a bus
in Route No.12 B?
DATA SUFFICIENCY: This type consists of some data and a question. Two of the
data are numbered or labelled. You are to judge whether an unambiguous answer
can be established to the question, based on Data 1 only; Data 2 only; Data 1 and 2
taken together; Either data 1 or data2, independently of the other; or neither with
data 1 nor with data 2, individually or jointly. Your response is thus necessarily
limited to one of these five choices only.
Example (Quantitative)
A
B C
Q. In given triangle ABC, is the angle B smaller than the angle c?
Data 1: B measures 52°
Data 2: Side AB is shorter than side BC.
Analysis and Solution: From the diagram, we see A is right angled.
? B + C must measure 90°. (Complementary angles)
From Data 1 B = 52°
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? A = 90° - 52° = 38°
Thus we see B > C
? B is not smaller than C - a definite, unambiguous answer to the question.
Thus Data 1 is adequate by itself to answer the given question unambiguously.
From Data 2, side AB is shorter than side BC. It is not in any way useful to be told
this, because in a right angled triangle, the hypotenuse is the largest side, and the
other 2 sides must be shorter than it.
?Data 2 is not helpful.
Thus the answer comes only form Data1 and the appropriate response is A.
Data Sufficiency (Non-Quantitative): This type is inclined to be based mostly on
logical reasoning; sometimes even language knowledge becomes the basis.
Example:
Q. Is P the largest city in state Q?
1. No city in state Q is larger than city P.
2. No city in state Q is even as large as city P.
The correct classification of the set is B as the second statement alone adequately
helps to answer the question. According to the statement 1, no city in Q is larger
than P. It is possible that all the cities in Q are smaller than P (in which case the
question is answered as “Yes”). It may also mean one or more of the cities are just
as large as P (and the others smaller), in which case too the question is answered,
but now as “No”. Since we can draw different conclusions from statement 1, A
cannot be the correct response. Statement 2, on the other hand, makes it clear that
P is the largest city in Q.
Evaluating Reasoning ( of the facets of a situation)
This becomes necessary when a certain issue is being deliberated upon, with a view
to arriving at a decision on it, involving the course of action to be adopted. The need
to take decisions arises all the time in management. Decisions taken can be sound
only when proper note has been taken of all relevant points, factors of major and
minor impact are recognized as such and above all, when the objectives are clear. It
is all these aspects that the objectives are clear. It is all these aspects that are
tested here in a case study. Reasoning tests could include a multitude of patterns
and it will be neither nor worthwhile to reproduce all kinds in this introductory
section. However, many, or almost all the patterns, which have appeared in different
examinations, find place in the exercises in the individual sections, with a few more
which have possibly not, till 1997.
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LOGICAL REASONING DERVING INFERENCE
SYLLOGISM:
Format of the question:
Two statements are generally followed by two inferences. The candidates are
to point out if inference I or II or both or neither follows. The statements given may
not agree with the thinking of a common man. For example, the statement may be
“All teachers are boats”. We are to assume these statements to be true, then work
out the inference.
Basic concepts:
A word gives us a unit of thought. For example if we say ‘child’ the word
gives us an image of the creature called a child. It is unit of thought; it does not tell
anything about the child, it gives us the mental image of the creature. But if we say
that “Children are naughty” we get some idea about the nature of the child. It can
become a unit of an argument is called PROPOSITION.
A term is a word or a group of words which become a subject or predicate of
a logical proposition. So all words cannot be terms; only nouns, pronouns or
adjectives can become subject or predicate of a logical proposition.
All sentences cannot be propositions. There are four types affirms or denies
the subjective term. For example:
All dogs are four-footed
Categorical argument
Format:
An ordinary categorical argument consists of two statements followed by two
possible inferences. The candidates are asked to point if the inference 1 or 2 or both
or neither follows.
For example:
Books are reading material.
Magazines are reading material.
(I) Magazines are books.
(II) Books are magazines.
A. Only inference I follows
B. Only inference II follows
C. Both I and II follows
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D. Neither I nor II follows
Rules for deriving valid inferences: In order to understand the rules it is
necessary to understand to understand a few things more about categorical
propositions.
Types of categorical propositions: There are four types of categorical
propositions.
(a) Universal affirmative
(b) Universal negative
(c) Particular affirmative
(d) Particular negative.
Universal affirmative: is one in which the subjective term refers to all the things for
which it stands and the sentence is affirmative. For example:
“All politicians are liars”
In the above given statement we are referring to all the politicians. The
sentence is in the affirmative. It is called ‘A’ proposition.
In the case of universal negative, the subjective term is Universal in
implication and negative in quality. It is called ‘E’ proposition.
For example:
“No man is woman”.
Particular affirmative: proposition has a subject which refers to less than all and the
sentence is in the affirmative.
“Some students are intelligent”
The term which refers to less than all is particular so “almost all”, ‘all except
one majority of the people’ etc. mean ‘some’ in logic. It is called ‘I’ proposition.
In the case of particular negative the subject is particular and the statement
is negative.
For example:
“Some rich are not cruel”
It is called ‘O’ proposition.
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Distribution of terms: Another thing to be understood before we take up the rules is
the distribution of the terms. If a term refers to all the things for which it stands it is
said to be distributed term. The logicians have given the following details regarding
the distribution of terms.
Propositions Distribution of terms
A proposition Subjective term distributed
E proposition Both the terms distributed
I proposition Neither is distributed
O proposition Predicative term distributed
How are they distributed?
‘A’ proposition: All sparrows are birds.
This is ‘A’ proposition. Clearly all sparrows are included in the category of
birds, graphic representation of proposition will be:
Sparrows Birds
So in this proposition subjective term refers to all the sparrows but the term
‘birds’ does not refer to all the birds; it refers to only one category of birds i.e.,
sparrows.
‘E’ proposition: “ No father is mother. ”
If one circle stands for ‘fathers’ and another for ‘mothers’ the graphic
representation will be two independent circles.
Clearly the first circle refers to all the fathers and the
Fathers Mothers
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Second to all the mothers. In other words, the two circles have nothing in common
with each other. We cannot say that one father is mother or one mother is father.
Both refer to all and are independent. So both the terms are distributed.
‘I’ proposition: “ Some students are politicians ”.
If one circle stands for subjective term and another for predicative term, graphic
representation will be two circles intersecting each other. The shaded portion stands
for the proposition. In the proposition we refer to the segments of the two and not
to the whole of the circles. So neither of the terms is distributed.
Students Politicians
‘O’ proposition: “some students are not players”.
Clearly the subjective term refers to ‘some’ only and the predicative term
refers to all. The graphic representation will be
Students Players
The segment standing for students has nothing in common with the circle
representing players. The term ‘player’ stands for all the players. So in a particular
negative proposition only predicative term is distributed.
Structure of a categorical argument:
A complete categorical argument consists of three propositions and
three terms. These propositions are called major premise, minor premise and
inference. The three terms are called major term, minor term and middle term.
For example:
All elephants are black.
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All elephants are four footed.
So some four footed animals are black.
The subjective term of the inference i.e., “four footed” is MINOR TERM,
whereas the predicative term of the inference is called major team. The only reason
for naming the predicative term as MAJOR TEAM is that it is this term, which is used
to affirm or deny the subjective term. A term, which is in both the first and the
second proposition, is called MIDDLE TERM.
The first proposition in which major term is present is called major proposition
or major premise. The second proposition in which minor term is present is called
minor premise or minor proposition. The third proposition is called inference.
Rules for categorical syllogism:
1. Every syllogism must contain three and only three terms.
2. A categorical syllogism must consist of only three propositions.
3. The middle term must be distributed at least once in the premises.
4. If one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative.
5. If the conclusion is negative, at least one premise must be negative (converse of
4).
6. If both premises are negative, no valid conclusion will be drawn.
7. If both premises are particular no valid conclusion can be drawn. The inference
will be uncertain.
8. From a particular major premise and a negative minor premise no valid conclusion
can be drawn.
9. If one premise is particular the conclusion must be particular.
10. No term can be distributed in the conclusion or inference if it is not distributed in
the premise.
11. No standard form syllogism with particular conclusion can have two universal
premises.
The rules given above for categorical syllogisms when violated lead to
fallacies, which are further discussed below;
Rule 1:
Violation of this rule leads to fallacy of four terms.
Example:
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All master of arts are eligible for doctoral studies.
A criminal is a master of his art.
Therefore a criminal is eligible for doctoral studies
The inference is fallacious. Because the middle term “master of his art” used
in the minor premise is different in sense from that used in the major premise,
“master of arts”.
Rule 2:
Violation of Rule 2 leads to a fallacy of four propositions.
Example:
All frogs are lung-breathing animals.
All lung-breathing animals are carnivores.
All carnivores are mammals.
Therefore all frogs are mammals.
The inference is false as the argument is not in a proper syllogistic form, as it
contains four propositions and four terms.
Rule 3:
The fallacy of undistributed middle term will occur when the middle term is
not distributed at least once in the premises.
Example:
All students are intelligent.
All men are intelligent.
Therefore all men are students
Here the middle term “intelligent” is the predicate term of the universal
affirmative proposition (‘A’ proposition) and it is not distributed in both in premises.
Therefore it fails to establish a legitimate relation between the major and minor
terms.
Rule 4:
Consider the example:
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E – No Indian is American
I – Some Indians are Hindus.
O – therefore some Hindus are not Americans
The conclusion that is negative is valid. The inference if it is affirmative is
fallacious.
Rule 5:
The violation of rule 5 results in the fallacy of two negative premises.
Example:
E – No brave person is cunning
E – No ambitious person is a brave person.
E – Therefore, no ambitious person is cunning
Rule 6:
A fallacy is caused by both premises being particular, leading to the inference
being uncertain. In this case rule 6 is violated as shown in the example below.
Example:
I – Some flowers are white
I – Some dogs are white
I – Therefore, some dogs are flowers.
Rule 7:
Example:
I – some Indians are Hindus
E – No Indian is a Greek
I – Therefore, some Greeks are Hindus.
Violates Rule 7. Hence not valid.
Rule 8:
Violation of this rule will also mean violation of one or more of the rules 3, 4,
6 and 9.
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Rule 9:
The rule when violated leads to the fallacy of undistribution of the major term
and the fallacy of undistribution of the minor term. The former is called Illicit Major
and the latter Illicit Minor.
Illicit Minor:
I – Some girls are beautiful
A – All girls are sentimental persons.
A – All sentimental persons are beautiful.
The major term is ‘beautiful’;
Middle term is ‘girls’; and
Minor term is ‘sentimental persons’.
For the 1st I proposition both the terms – subject and predicate – are undistributed.
For the 2nd A proposition – the subject alone is distributed.
For the 3rd A proposition – the subject alone is distributed.
The middle term is distributed at least once in the premises. The Major term
that is undistributed in the I premises is seen to be undistributed in the conclusion. I
premise is seen to be undistributed in the conclusion. But the minor term that is
undistributed in the II premise is seen to be distributed in the conclusion. This
commits the fallacy of Illicit minor for the minor term violates this rule.
Illicit Major
I – Some men are graduates
A – All men are diplomats
O – Therefore some diplomats are not graduates
Middle term is distributed at least once in the premises.
Minor term is undistributed in the conclusion as it is so in the II premises.
Major term undistributed in the I premise is distributed in the conclusion,
committing the fallacy of Illicit major.
Rule 10
When an argument has universal premises and a particular conclusion, then it
becomes invalid as shown below.
Example:
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A – All birds are flying animals
A – All bats are flying animals
O – Therefore, some bats are not birds.
Any standard-form categorical syllogism that violates any of the abovementioned
rules is invalid, whereas if it does not violate any one of them, then it is
valid.
Rule 11
Example:
All men are two legged
All birds are two legged
Some men are birds
This conclusion is invalid.
Hypothetical Argument:
A hypothetical proposition is an implicative proposition. It may also be called
a conditional proposition and the general form of a conditional proposition may be
brought out as follows: if antecedent, then consequent. In a hypothetical argument
the first proposition is hypothetical. The second proposition or minor premise is a
categorical proposition. The third proposition or inference is also a categorical
proposition.
Rules for Hypothetical Arguments
Rule 1
In the minor premise either antecedent is affirmed or consequent is denied.
To affirm the antecedent in the minor premise is to affirm the consequent in the
inference.
Example 1:
If he studies well he will succeed. p ? q
He studies well p
?He will succeed ?q
Note:
? means ‘implies’ (i.e. implication)
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v means ‘either……..or’ (i.e. alternation)
~ means ‘not’ (i.e. negation)
Rule 2
To deny the consequent in the minor premise is to deny the antecedent in the
inference.
Example 2:
If it is cloudy it will rain. p ? q
It will not rain ~ q
?It is not cloudy ?~ p
Fallacy:
(i) To affirm the antecedent in the minor premises and to deny the consequent in
the inference is invalid (violation of Rule 1).
Example 3:
If you speak well you will win the prize p ? q
You speak well p
?You will not win the prize ? ~ q
(ii) To deny the consequent in the minor premise and to affirm the antecedent in
the inference is also invalid (Violation of Rule 2)
Example 4:
If you are old you must be weak. p ? q
You are not weak p
?You are old ? p
(iii) If both the propositions are hypothetical no conclusion can be drawn.
(iv) If antecedent is taken in the minor proposition it can be affirmed only. It
cannot be denied. If antecedent is denied inference is false. (violation of
Rule 1)
Example 5:
If it rains there will be a good crop p ? q
It does not rain ~ p
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?There will not be a good crop ? ~ q
Thus the inference is false even when the consequent is affirmed or denied in
the inference.
(v) If consequent is taken in the minor proposition, it can be denied only. If it is
affirmed the inference is false.
Example 6:
If he writes, he will commit mistakes p ? q
He commits mistakes q
?He writes ? p
Disjunctive syllogism:
Disjunctive propositions have ‘Either………or’ in them. It is called alternative
propositions by modern logicians. The first proposition is a disjunctive proposition. It
also consists of two parts antecedent and consequent. The remaining two
propositions of the disjunctive argument are more or less categorical.
Example 1:
Either he is intelligent or he is dull.
He is not intelligent
? He is dull.
Rules for Disjunctive Arguments:
If a compound proposition is formed by using the word ‘or’ or ‘either or’, it is
called disjunctive or alternative. A disjunctive argument has major premise, minor
premise and inference. In the minor premise we can affirm or deny either the
antecedent or consequent. If one part of antecedent or consequent is affirmed in the
minor premise the other part is denied in the inference.
Rule 1
Example 2:
Either he is beautiful or ugly p v q
He is beautiful p
?He is not ugly ~ q
Rule 2
Example 3:
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Either he is educated or he is foolish p v q
He is foolish q
?He is not educated ~ p
Fallacy:
1. Either affirming the consequent in the inference when the antecedent is affirmed
in the minor premises (violation or Rule 1) or affirming the antecedent in the
inference when the consequent is affirmed in the minor premises (violation of
Rule 2) will lead to fallacious conclusion.
2. The minor premise as well as the inference must be either the antecedent or
consequent. Otherwise the inference is irrelevant.
Example:
It is either a cat or a rat.
It is not an elephant.
?It is a cat.
3. From two disjunctive premises no inference can be drawn.
4. The antecedent and consequent must be mutually exclusive; otherwise inference
is false.
Example:
Either he is intelligent or industrious.
He is intelligent
?He is not industrious
The antecedent ‘he is intelligent’ does not necessarily mean that ‘he is not
industrious’. An intelligent person can be ‘not industrious’ and an unintelligent
person can be industrious or an unintelligent person may not be industrious. So
the antecedent “intelligent” and consequent “industrious” are not mutually
exclusive. Hence the inference is invalid.
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TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometric Ratios of angles that are multiples of
2
p
(n is any integer)
1) sin np = 0
2) cos np = (-1)n
3) tan np = 0
4) 1
2
sin(4n 1) =
p
+
5) 1
2
sin(4n 1) = -
p
-
6) 0
2
cos(2n 1) =
p
+
7)
2
tan(2n 1)
p
+ is not defined.
Domain, Range and Periods
T. Function Domain Range Period
Sin x
Cos x
Tan x
Cotx
Cosec x
Sec x
R
R
R-[x : x = (2n + 1)
p/2
R-[x : x = np]
R-[x : x = (2n + 1)
p/2
R – [x : x = np]
[-1, 1]
[-1, 1]
R
R
[-8, -1] ? [1, 8]
[-8, -1] ? [1, 8]
2p
2p
pp
2p
2p
Note: Since all the T-functions are period, they cannot be monotonic. However, they
may be monotonic over a subset of R. E.g. Sin x is monotonically increasing in
??
?
??
?p p
2
3
,
2
Trigonometric Ratios of certain angles:
Degree 15° 18° 22 ½ ° 36° 75°
Radius
12
p
10
p
8
p
5
p
12
5p
Sin
4
6 - 2
4
5 -1
2 2
2 - 1
4
10 - 2 5
4
6 + 2
Cos
4
6 + 2
4
10 + 2 5
2 2
2 + 1
4
5 + 1
4
6 - 2
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Problems:
1. A man standing on top of a cliff observes the angles of depression of the top and
respectively. Find the length of the tower.
bottom of a tower 100 metres away from the foot of the cliff as 45° and 60°
Solution:
P 60° 45° Eye level
h 45°
R A
x
60°
Q B
100m
Let AB be the cliff and Let PQ = h, say, Let AB = x = RQ say Let AB be the tower
BQ = 60°
from ?PAR, tan45° =
Given QB = 100m;
?PAR = 45° and ?P
PR
RA
0
1)
60° =
100
h 20
1
-
=
?h – x = 10
?x = h – 100 ………..(
100
3 h
QB
from ?PBQ, tan = PQ =
?h = 100 3 ……..(2)
in (1) x = 100 3 -100
100( 3 -1)
32 = 73.2m
=
= 100 × 0.7 etres
2. Evaluate:
1+ tan60°tan30°
tan60° - tan30°
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Solution:
Tan(A –B) =
A B
A B
1 tan tan
tan tan
+
-
This is a statement formula to be memorized.
= tan (60° - 30°) = tan 30° =
3
1
+ ° °
° - °
1 tan60 tan30
tan60 tan30
3. Evaluate
+ °
°
1 tan 15
2 tan15
2
Solution:
We know sin2A
1 tan A
2 tanA
2 =
+
(Standard formula to be memorized)
sin(2 15) sin30 0.5
1 tan 15
2 tan15
2 = × = ° =
+ °
°
? 4.
4. . Evaluate
+ °
- °
1 tan 15
1 tan 15
2
2
Solution:
We know cos 2A
1 tan 15
1 tan 15
2
2
=
+ °
- °
( )
2
3
cos 2 15 cos 30
1 tan 15
1 tan 15
2
2
= × = ° =
+ °
- °
? 4
5. Evaluate 3 sin 15° – 4 sin315°
Solution:
We know 3 sin A – 4 sin3A = sin3A(Standard formula to be memorized)
3 sin 15° – 4 sin315 °= sin (3 ×15) = sin45 °=
2
1
6. From the top and bottom of a building, the angles of the summit of a cliff are 30
and 60 respectively. Find the height of the building if the distance between the
building and the cliff is 450 metres?
Solution:
Let AB = x = Height of the building
= NQ
Let PQ = h, height of the cliff, say
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Given: BQ = 450m = AN
?PAN =
?PBQ = 60°
From ?
30°
PAN, tan30° =
460
1 PN h - x
= = [PN = Pq –NQ = n – x]
3 AN
(h - x
P
A
30 0 N
x
Q
) 3 = 450
150 3
450
h – x =
3
450 3
3
= =
?x = h - 150 3 ……….(1)
=
450
h
AQ
PQ
From ?PBQ, tan60° = = B
h 450 3.............(2)
450
h
? 3 =
? =
in (1) x = 450 3 - 150 3
= 300 3 = 300 ×1.732 = 519.6mts.
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CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY
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Y
6- - - - - - -P
5
4
3
2
1
X' -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 X
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
Y'
The plane of the paper is divided into 4 sections (as shown in the above
diagram) by two perpendicular lines xox' and yoy'. We can specify any point in the
plane of the paper of the paper by means of its distances from xox' and yoy'. xox'
and yoy' are called x and y axes respectively and the distance from these are called
y and x-co-ordinates. Thus for point p, x co-ordinate is 4 and y co-ordinate is 6.
If two numbers are given say 3, -4, we can locate a unique point having 3 as
its x co-ordinate and –4 as its y co-ordinate. The representation of points by means
of co-ordinate enables us to apply the method of algebra to study the properties of
geometrical figures.
1. The distance between two points whose co=ordinate are (x , y ) and
1 2
(x 2 y 2 ) is
d = 2
1 2
2
(x1 - x2) + (y - y )
2. If there are two points p (x1 ,2) and Q (x2 y2), the co-ordinate of the point
K which divides PQ in the ratio m: n are
m n
ny my
,
m n
nx1 mx2 1 2
+
+
+
+
P Q
K
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If
n
m
is negative K will fall outside the line segment PQ
Form of the equation of a straight line is y = mx+c where m and c are constants.
This means that the co-ordinates of any point on the line satisfies the equation and
conversely, if a pair of values of x,y (say x1 and y1) satisfy the equation y= mx + c,
the points whose co-ordinates are x1 and y1 will lie on the straight line. Thus the
equation y = 3x + 2 represents a straight line, containing the points (1,6) , (2,8) ,
(3,11) etc., The equation x = 0 represents the y-axis and y=0 represents the x-axis.
Any linear equation in x and y represents a straight line.
y
y=mx+c y-c y
x
? c
0 x
From the figure given above it will be seen that c denotes the intercept which
the line y=mx+c makes with the y-axis and m denotes the tangent of the
angle which the line makes with the positive direction of the x-axis, m is
called the gradient, slope or simply m of the line.
Corollary: two lines y = mx+c and y=m' x+c are parallel
If m = m' and they are perpendicular to each other
If mm' = -1
2. The equation of a straight line joining the points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) is
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
1
1 2
1
y y
y y
x x
x x
or
y y
y y
x x
x x
-
-
=
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
The slope of this line is =
1 2
1 2
x x
y y
-
-
, ( the slope of a line is got by putting the equation
of the line in the standard form y = mx+c where the co-efficient of x denotes the
slope).
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3. Since any linear equation in x,y represents a straight line the general equation of
any straight line can be taken in the form ax+by+c =0
4. 1
b
y
a
x
+ = represents a straight line making intercepts a and b with x and y axes
respectively.
X cos a + y sin a = p represent a straight line where p represents the length of
the perpendicular from the origin on the line and a is the angle between the
perpendicular distance of the point (x1,y1) from the line ax + by + c= 0 is
5. If a1x+b1y+c1 = 0 and a2x+b2y+c2 = 0 are equations of two straight lines l1 and
l2, then a1x+b1y+c1 + k(a2x+b2y+c2) = 0 represents the equation of any line
passing through the intersection of l1 and l2
6. The reflection of a point (x1,y1) on x=y is (y1,x1) and on x = -y is (-y1,-x1)
The equation Y = x represents the following straight lines l1and l2
y y
1
b
y
a
x
+ = x cos a + y sin a = p
b p
x a x
0 a 0
y
2
l1
x
l
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The equation y =
x
x
, x ? 0 represents the following straight lines.
The equation x + y =1 represents the figure shown below:-
7. The equation x +y = a represents a circle with origin as center and radius a. Any
point on this circle can be taken in the form (x cos a , y sin a )
The equation of a circle with centre (x
2 2
1,y1) and radius is (x-x1) + (y-y 2
1) = r
The equation of the circle with the line joining (x
2 2
1y1) and (x2y2) as diameter is
(x-x1) (x-x2) + (y-y1) (y1-y2) = 0
Y
(0,1)
0 x
(0,-1)
y
0,1
0
-1,0 1,0 x
0,-1
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GEOMETRY
In this section some fundamentals of elementary plane geometry are
discussed.
Fundamental elements of geometry are divided into three parts.
1.Point-Line-angle.
2.Triangles.
3.Circle and other geometrical structures.
PART-1
POINT-LINE-ANGLE
Point:
In general two straight lines intersect at a point.
A point has only one position. It does not have dimensions (Length, breadth
or height)
pt
Line:
The shortest distance between any two points is called a line.
Q
P
P and Q are two points and the shortest distance between them is called a line segment.
Again, a set of points, which have length alone is called a straight line.
A straight line can be extended infinitely on both sides of P and Q.
A stretched wire possesses only length. It is one dimensional in nature.
Here we take P as the origin.
P Q …… x
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PQ produced is called x – axis. One coordinate (x) is sufficient to fix a point on it.
Surface:
A geometrical figure having length and breadth is called a surface. It is two
dimensional is nature.
A straight line can be represented in two dimensions also.
Here two coordinates are needed to fix a point say P(x, y) with reference to
axes x and y. x refers to length along x axis and y refers to breadth along y axis.
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Examples of surfaces are Y
Q (x2, y2)
P(x1, y1)
0 X
(1) Black board
(2) Table top
(3) Outer portion of a football etc.
(A surface need not be flat)
Space:
A geometrical figure having length, breadth and height occupies space. Space
is three dimensional in nature.
A straight line one dimensional in nature can fit in 3-D. (3-dimensions).
Here three coordinates are needed to fix a point say P(x, y, z) with reference to
three axes x, y, and z.
X refers to length along x -axis
Y refers to breadth along y -axis
Z refers to height along z -axis
EXAMPLES:
(1) Cube
(2) Foot ball (as a whole, including space inside)
Z
Q (x2, y2, z2)
P (x1, y1, z1)
0 X
(3) A room Y
Angle: B
?
O A
The intersection of two lines yields a point.
Two lines OA and OB intersect at O.
‘?’ (theta) is the angle between the lines.
Notation: 180° Q
P 180°
?AOB = ?BOA = ?
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An angle will be always measured in anticlockwise direction.
An angle is measured in degrees.
? = 30°, ? = 45°, ? = 60° etc.
The total angle occupied by a straight line is 360°.
Acute angle:
If ? < 90°, then it is called an acute angle.
B
? = 90°
O A
B
O ? = 30 A
Right angle:
If ? = 90°, then it is called a right angle or right angle.
Obtuse angle:
If ? lies between 90° and 180°, then it is called an obtuse angle.
B
? = 120°
Reflex angle: O A
If ? is more than 180° and less than 360°,
O
A ? = 0
and ?= 360
B
then it is called a reflex angle.
Complementary angles:
If the sum of two angles is exactly equal to 90°,
then the two angles are called complementary angles.
30°
A
60°
B
Here ?A = 30° and ?B = 60°
?A + ?B = 30° + 60° = 90°
?A and ?B are called complementary angles.
Supplementary angles:
60°
B
120 °
A
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If the sum of two angles is 180° or two right angles, then the two angles are
called supplementary angles.
?A = 120° and ?B = 60°
?A + ?B = 120° + 60° = 180°
?A and ?B are called supplementary angles.
Remarks:
Examples of adjacent complementary and supplementary angles are given
below.
C
B
55°
35°
A
120°
60°
Vertically opposite angles:
Two lines AB and CD intersect at O.
a and ß are vertically opposite angles and they are equal.
A ß D
? d
ß
Similarly the opposite angles ? and d are equal. C B
Examples: a = ß and
?
P D
Q
a
a ß ß
A O B
1. In the following diagram, find the angle ?POQ .
Solution:
?POQ = a + ß
2a + 2ß = 180 0
Hence ?POQ = 90 0
2. In the following diagram find the remaining angles
?ACB = 180° - 70° = 110°
?DCE = 110°
?CDE = 40° and ?DEC = 30°
D
40 0
70 0
E C A
B
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3. In the diagram given below if a = 2(b + 30°), find b.
Solution:
a b
?a + ?b = 180° (Allied angles)
2(b + 30) + b = 180
3b = 120
b = 40°
PART II
1. Triangles:
The straight lines joining three noncollinear points form a triangle. The three
points A, B and C are called vertices.
A
A
B C
B C
(A should not lie on BC)
AB, BC and CA are three line segments joined to form a triangle.
Symbol: Triangle = ?.
Remarks:
(i) In a triangle ABC, sum of the angles is always equal to 180°.
i.e. ?A + ?B + ?C = 180°
(ii) Sum of the lengths of two sides will always be greater than the third side.
i.e., AB + BC > CA
or BC + CA > AB
or CA + AB > BC
(one of these three should be true)
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Classification of triangles:
(1) A triangle whose sides are all unequal is called a scalene triangle.
(2) A triangle with any two equal sides is called an isosceles triangle.
(3) If all the three sides of a triangle are equal, then it is called an equilateral
triangle.
A
A
B C
B C
Isosceles triangle
AB = AC
A
A
B C
B C
Equilateral triangle
AB = BC = CA
A
A
B C
B C
Scalene triangle
Remark:
(i) In a scalene triangle, sides and angles A, B, C are unequal.
(ii) In an isosceles triangles,two sides AB and AC are equal, and ?B = ?C.
(3) In an equilateral triangle, as all the three sides are equal, all the three angles are
equal.
i.e. ?A = ?B = ?C = 60° (180°/3)
(4) Acute angled triangle:
If an angle is greater than zero and less than 90°, then it is called an acute
angle.
All the angles A, B and C are acute and must be acute.
A
A
B C
B C A
B C
(5) Obtuse angled triangle:
If an angle lies between 90° and 180°, then it is
called an obtuse angle.
If one angle in a triangle is greater than 90°,
then it is called an obtuse angled triangle.
Here ?A > 90°
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(6) Right angled triangle:
B
A C
If one angle of a triangle = 90°, then it is called
a right angled triangle.
(It is also called a right triangle)
?A is a right angle here.
Remark:
If two sides of a triangle are not equal, then the
angle opposite to the larger side is greater than the angle opposite to the other side.
BC is the largest side. ?A is the largest angle.
A
B C
7. Exterior angle:
The angle between a side of a triangle (AC) and an extension of another side
(BC) is called exterior angle of a triangle.
Here the angle marked as ? is called the exterior angle.
A
C ?
B C
Further ?C + ?? = 180°
?? = 180° - ?C.
GENERAL PROPERTIES OF TRIANGLES
1. Medians of a triangle.
Median is a line segment joining one vertex of a triangle to the midpoint of
the opposite side.
There are three medians in a triangle.
A
F E
G
B C
D
The point of intersection of medians is called centroid.
AD, BE and CF are called medians.
G is the centroid.
AG : GD = BG : GE = CG : GF =2 : 1
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2. Altitudes of a triangle: A
F E
O
B C
D
A straight line drawn from a vertex of a triangle
perpendicular to the opposite side is called altitude.
There are three altitudes, in a triangle The point of intersection of
altitudes is called orthocentre.
The length of the altitude is called height of the triangle.
AD, BE and CF here are called altitudes. O is the orthocentre. A
B = (0) C
In a right angled triangle, the orthocentre is the vertex
where there is a right angle.
Here ?B is a right angle.
B = O is the orthocentre.
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Bisectors of angles in a triangle:
ABC is a triangle. IA, IB and IC are three lines A
I
B C
which bisect angles A, B and C.
These three lines are called the bisectors of angles A, B and C.
I is called incentre.
Remark:
A circle can be drawn with I as center touching the three
A
I
sides AB, BC and CA. Such a circle is called incircle. B C
Four important postulates on congruent triangles.
1. SSS Rule (side – side – side):
Two triangles are congruent if three sides of
one triangle are equal to the corresponding sides
A A’
B C B’ C’
of the other triangle.
Here AB = A’B’; BC = B’C’ ; CA = C’A’.
Then ?ABC = ? A’B’C’
2. SAS Rule (side – angle – side):
If any two sides and the angle included A A’
between them of one triangle is equal to another,
then the two triangles are congruent.
Here AB = A’B’ ; AC = A’C’ and ?A = ?A’
3. ASA Rule: (angle – side – angle):
If in two triangles any two angles and two corresponding
B C B’ C’
sides are equal, then they are said to be congruent.
Here ?A = ?A’ ; ?B = ?B’ and AC = A’C’. A A’
A A’
B C B’ C’
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4. RHS rule (Right angled triangle – Hypotenuse – side)
If the hypotenuse and one side of two right triangles
are equal, then they are congruent.
Here AB = A’B’ and AC = A’C’.
SIMILAR TRIANGLES.
Two triangles are said to be similar, if their
corresponding sides are proportional .The
corresponding angles are equal in two similar triangles
The triangles ABC and A’B’C’ are said to be proportional if
A A’
' ' ' ' ' B C B’ C’ ' C A
CA
B C
BC
A B
AB = =
?A = ?A’ : ?B = ?B’ and ?C = ?C’
A A’
B C B’ C’
Three similarity rules:
1. SAS rule:
Two triangles ABC and A’B’C’ are said to be
similar if a pair of corresponding angles and equal
and the sides including there are proportional.
Here ?A = A’ ; AB = A’B’ and AC = A’C’.
2. AAA rule:
Two triangles ABC and A’B’C’ are said to be
similar if two pairs of their corresponding angles are equal.
A A’
Here ?A = ?A’ and ?C = ?C’.
3. SSS rule: A
D E
B C B’ C’
Two triangles are similar if their corresponding
sides are proportional. (explained in rule 1)
(This condition itself is sufficient for two triangles to be similar).
Thale’s theorem:
A line drawn parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two sides
proportionally.
The line DE is parallel to BC .?ABC is proportional to ?ADE
EC
AE
DB
AD =
Result:
In a right angled triangle, a perpendicular drawn from the vertex
to the opposite side, divides the given triangle into two similar triangles.
A
D
B C
BD is perpendicular to AC . ?ABD and ? BDC are similar.
A
D E
B C
EXAMPLES:
1. ABC is a triangle and DE is the line joining the midpoints of
AB and AC. What is DE?
A.
3
2
AB B.
3
1
AC C.
2
1
BC D. None of these
If D and E are midpoints of AB and AC, then the line DE is parallel to BC.
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DE =
2
1 BC
2. One angle of a right- angled isosceles triangle is 45°. What will be the ratio of its
sides?
Let a be its side. A
45
a
45
B a C
a2 + a2 = AC2
2a = AC
a : a : 2 a
1 : 1 : 2 will be the ratio of its sides.
A
40 30
B C D E
3. In the diagram given below BC = AC ;
AD = DE; and ?B = 40° ; ?E = 30 °. What is angle CAD?
?DAE = 180° - 70° = 110°
?CAD = 110° - ?BAC - ?DAE = 110° - 40° - 30° = 40°
4. In the diagram given below, find the angle ABD.
?BCA = 60° ; ?ABC = 50° ; ?DBA = 130°
A
70°
120°
D E
B C
PART 3: CIRCLE AND OTHER GEOMETRICAL FIGURES:
CIRCLE:
O
r
P
1. If a point P moves such that its distance from a
fixed point ‘O’ is always a constant, then P describes a circle.
P’
O
r
P
Distance OP = r is called the radius of the circle.
O is called the center of the circle.
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Any line POP’ passing through the
center ‘O’ is called the diameter of the circle.
POP’ = 2r
2. Area of the circle = pr2.
3. Circumference of the circle = 2pr
4. Part of the circumference of a circle is called arc
of the circle.A straight line joining two points on the circumference
P Q P
A B
R Q
is called a chord.
APQB is known to be a major arc P
A B
and ARB is called a minor arc.
5. If AB is a diameter of a circle, APB is called a semicircle.
?APB = 90° as angle in a semicircle is a right angle.
6. Let O be the center of a circle. AB be a chord of the
O
A C B
circle. Let OC be perpendicular to AB.
Then C will be the midpoint of AB, i.e. AC = CB
7. Let AB and CD be two equal chords of a circle with
center at ‘O’. Let us draw OP and OQ perpendicular
to AB and AC. Then OP = OQ
Conversely, if OP = OQ, then AB must be equal to CD.
8. In a circle, the angle subtended by an arc at the center is double
A
B P O C
Q
the angle subtended by the same arc at the circumference. D
?BOC = 2?BAC A
O
B C
9. A straight line which meets a given circle at only one point is called a tangent to
the circle.
B
P
A
P is called the point of contact.
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10. If AB and CD are two chords of a circle which intersect internally or externally,
then PA . PB = PC. PD
A C
P
D B
A
B
O P
D
C
(Internal division) (External division)
Quadrilateral:
A geometrical figure obtained by joining four
non-collinear points is called a quadrilateral.
AB, BC, CD and DA one sides of a quadrilateral.
AC and BD are diagonals of the quadrilateral. AL = d1 and
D
d1 L M
A C
d2
B
BM = d2 are drawn perpendicular to BD and AC.
Area of the quadrilateral = (d d )BD
2
1
1 + 2
Trapezium:
D C
A quadrilateral with one pair of opposite sides parallel
A E B
is called a trapezium.
Here AB and CD are parallel. DE is perpendicular to AB.
Area of the trapezium ABCD =
2
1 DE (AB + CD).
Remark:
If the non-parallel sides AD and BC are equal, then it is called isosceles
trapezium. In this case ?C = ?D and ?A = ?B.
Parallelogram:
If in a quadrilateral, both the sets of opposite sides are parallel and
equal, then it is called a parallelogram.
In a parallelogram ABCD
1. Opposite sides are parallel and equal
2. AB is parallel to CD and AD is parallel to CB.
3. Further AB = CD and AD = CB.
4. Opposite angles are equal ?A = ?C and ?B = ?D
5. ?A + ?B = 180 ; ?B + ?C = 180
?C + ?D = 180° and ?D + ?A = 180°
D C
O
A B
6. Diagonals bisect each other AO = OC and BO = OD.
7. Each diagonal bisects the parallelogram into two congruent triangles.
?ABC is congruent to ?ADC.
?ADB is congruent to ?DCB.
8. Diagonals divide a parallelogram into four equals triangles.
i.e. Area of ?AOD = area of ?AOB = area of ?BOC = area of ?DOC.
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Area of a parallelogram:
Area of a parallelogram is base × altitude.
D C
A E B
ABCD is a parallelogram. DE is drawn perpendicular to AB.
DE is the altitude.
Area of the parallelogram = AB. DE.
Rectangle:
In a parallelogram if angle at every vertex is a right
angle, then it is called a rectangle.
?A = ?B = ?C = ?D = 90°
Area of a rectangle = length × breadth = AB × BC (or) CD × AD.
RHOMBUS:
In a parallelogram, if
D C
A B
1. All the sides are equal (AB = BC = CD = DE) A
B O D
C
2. Diagonals bisect each other at right angles or,
3. Each diagonal bisects angles at the vertices or,
(AC bisects angles A and C and BD bisects angles B and D.
then it is called a rhombus.
Area of the rhombus =
2
1 the product of diagonals. =
2
1 AC . BD
EXAMPLES:
1. Two radii OA and OB of a circle of area 16p subtend an angle of 60° at the center
‘O”. Find AB. A
D
30° B
O
Area of the circle = 16p
Radius of the circle = 4
i.e. OA = OB = 4
?AOB = 60°
OD is drawn perpendicular to AB
?AOD = 30°
AD = OA sin 30 = 4.
2
1 = 2.
AB = 4 units.
2. The lengths of two sides of a parallelogram are 8cm and 6 cm and the length of
one diagonal is 10 cm. Find the area of the parallelogram.
ABCD is the parallelogram. D C
10 6
A 8 B
Area of ?ABD = s(s - a)(s - b)(s - c)
Where s = 12
2
10 6 8
2
a b c
=
+ +
=
+ +
Area of ?ABC = 12 × 6 × 2 × 4 = 24
Area of the parallelogram ABCD = 2 × 24 = 48 sq. units.
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3. Given that area of a rhombus is 24 sq. cm and the sum of the lengths of the
diagonals is 14 cms, find the side of the rhombus.
Let d1 and d2 be the lengths of the diagonals.
24
2
1
d1d2 =
d1d2 = 48 ------- (1)
Further
d1 + d2= 14 ---------- (2)
Solving (1) and (2),
d1 = 6 cm and d2 = 8 cms
(side)2 = 25
2
d
2
d 2
2
2
1 = ??
?
??
?
+ ??
?
??
?
4. In the diagram given below, E and F are the mid-points of opposite sides of a
rectangle. Find the area of the shaded region.
Area of shaded region = Area of rectangle - Areas of (?DGF + ?GAE + ?ECB)
=(16x8)-(1/2x4x8+1/2x4x8 +1/2x8x8)
= 128 – (64) = 64
D F C
4 6
5. ABCD is a parallelogram of area 100 sq. cm. E and F are midpoints of AB and AD.
Find the area of the triangle AEF.
G 8
6
A B
E 76
Area of the parallelogram ABCD = 100 sq. cm
D C
F
A E B
DB is a diagonal
Area of triangle ADB = 50 sq. cm
Triangles AEF and ADB are similar.
2
1
AB
AE
AD
AF
= =
Triangle AEF is half the triangle ADB.
Area of triangle AEF = 2.5 sq. cm
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CALCULUS
(1) If y = f(x), x is called the independent variable and ‘y’ the dependent variable.
(2) Some important limits:
(i) 1
?
sin?
? 0
Lt =
?
(ii) cos? 1
? 0
Lt =
?
(iii) 1
?
tan?
Lt
? 0
=
?
(iv) m
?
sinm?
? 0
Lt =
?
(v) m
?
tanm?
? 0
Lt =
?
(vi) nan 1
x a
xn an
x a
Lt = -
-
-
?
(vii) Lt (1 h)h e
1
h 0
+ =
?
Where 2 < e < 3, e = 2.71 approximately
(viii) e
h
1
Lt 1
h
h
= ??
?
??
?
+
?8
(ix) 1
x
e 1
Lt
x
x 0
=
-
?
(x) log a
x
a 1
Lt e
x
x 0
=
-
?
(3) L’Hospital’s rule :If f(x) and f (x) are such that
f(a)
f(a)
is indeterminate i.e.takes
the form
0
0 or
8
8
, then
x a
Lt
-> f(x)
f(x)
=
x a
Lt
-> f' (x)
f' (x)
Derivatives of a function or differential coefficients of functions:
If y = f(x), the derivative of y w.r.t ‘x’ is defined as
d x
f(x d x) f(x)
Lt
dx
dy
dx 0
+ -
=
?
Derivatives of some standard functions:
y
dx
dy
Y
dx
dy
xn nxn-1 Sec x Sec x tanx
x
1
x2
1
-
Cot x
-cosec2x
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x
2 x
1
Sin ax a cos ax
xn
1
xn 1
n
+ -
Tan ax
a sec2ax
ex ex ef(x) ef(x).f' (x)
ax
a loge a
x af(x) a .f (x).log a e
f(x) '
loge x
x
1
loge f(x)
f'(x)
f(x)
1
loga x
log e
x
1
a
loga f(x)
f'(x).log e
f(x)
1
a
Sin x Cos x Sin f(x) Cos f(x). f’(x)
Cos x - sin x Cos f(x) - sin f(x) f’(x)
Tan x Sec2x Tan f(x)
Cosec f(x)
Sec2f(x) f’(x)
-cosec 2 f(x)
cot f(x).f’(x)
Cosec x - cosec x cot x Sec f(x)
Cot f(x)
Sec f(x) tan f(x) f’(x)
-cosec2f(x).f’(x)
Problems on Limits:
Evaluate the following Limits:
1. 2
sin 2
2
sin x
2
Lt
cos x
2x
Lt
x 2 x 2
= -
p
-
=
-
=
- p
?p ?p
, using L’Hospital’s rule
2. 2
2
1
1
sin x
)
6
cos(x
Lt
0
0
cos x
2
3
)
6
sin(x
Lt
x 6 x 6
= =
p
-
= ??
?
??
= ?
-
p
-
?p ?p
, using L’Hospital’s rule
3. ??
?
?? =
? -
? 0
0
x
1 cos x
Lt
x 0 2
2
1
2
cos x
Lt
0
0
2x
sin x
Lt
x 0 x 0
= = ??
?
??
= = ?
? ?
, using L’Hospital’s rule.
4. 2
x
a b cos x
Lt
x 0 2
=
+
?
, find the value of ‘a’
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a b 0
0
a b
x
a b cos x
Lt
x 0 2
? + =
+
=
+
?
, since the given value of the limit = 2
2
b
x
sin x
2
b
Lt
2x
b sin x
Lt
x 0 x 0
- = ??
?
??
- ?
=
-
=
? ?
Since the original limit = 2; -b/2 = 2; b = -4
Since a + b = 0; a = 4
5.
2
1
2
n
1
1
Lt
2n
n 1
Lt
2n
n(n 1)
Lt
n
1 2 3 ... n
Lt
x 2 n 2 n n
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
+ + + +
?8 ?8 ?8 ?8
Since n ?8; 0
n
1
?
6. n.1 n
(1 x) 1
(1 x) 1
Lt
x
(1 x) 1
Lt n 1
n
(1 x) 1
n
x 0
= =
+ -
+ -
=
+ - -
? + ?
[use the result n 1
n n
x a
na
x a
x a
Lt -
?
=
-
-
]
7.
5
2
x
2
5
x
1
x
3
2
Lt
5x 2
2x 3x 1
Lt
2
2
2 x
2
x
=
-
+ +
=
-
+ +
?8 ?8
, since 0
x
1
0 and
x
1
2 ? ?
8. ??
?
??
?
=
-
- +
? 0
0
x 4
3 5 x
Lt
x 4
[Indeterminate form]
=
6
1
2 3
1
2 5 4
1
1
2 5 x
1
Lt
x 4
= -
×
= -
+
+ = -
-
?
[using L’Hospital’s rule]
9.
1 1 2
2
Lt 1 sin x 1 sin
(1 sin x)
(1 sin x)(1 sin x)
Lt
1 sin x
1 sin x
Lt
0
0
1 sin x
cos x
Lt
x 2 x 2
2
x 2
2
x 2
= + =
p
= + = +
-
+ -
=
-
-
= ??
?
??
?
=
?p - ?p ?p ?p
10. ??
?
??
= ?
? - 0
0
x 1
log x
Lt
x 1
[Indeterminate form].
1
1
11
1
x
1
Lt
x 1
= = =
? using L’Hospital’s Rule
11. 3 1 3 3
3x
e 1
Lt
x
e 1
Lt
3x
x 0
3x
x 0
× = × =
-
=
-
? ?
, using the formula 1
ax
e 1
Lt
ax
ax 0
=
-
?
12.
1
3
4
3
4 4
3
4
3
x 0
4
x 0
(108)
108
1
4 27
1
4.3
1
(3 )
1
4
1
(81 0)
1
4
1
1
(81 x)
4
1
Lt
0
0
x
81 x 3
Lt -
-
? ?
= =
×
= = =
+
=
+
= ??
?
??
= ?
+ -
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13.
?
?
=
??
-
? sin
Lt
x
sin x
Lt
0
1
x 0
where x = sin ?
= 1
14.
x
sin2x
f(x) = is continuous, find f(0)
??
?
??
= = ?
? 0
0
x
sin2x
f(0) Lt
x 0
[Indeterminate form]
2
1
2 cos 0
1
2 cos 2x
Lt
x 0
= = =
?
, Since cos 0 = 1 (Using L’Hospital’s rule)
15. ??
?
??
?
=
-
? 0
0
x
3 7
Lt
x x
x 0
[Indeterminate form]
= ??
?
??
?
= - =
-
? 7
3
log3 log7 log
1
3 log3 7 log7
Lt
x x
x 0
16. 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
4
p
sin
4
p
cos
1
cosx sinx
Lt
x p 4
sinx cosx
Lt
x p 4 x p 4
= + = + = =
+
=
-
-
=
? ?
17. - = × 8
?
0
2
px
Lt (x 1)tan
x 1
p
2
2
p
1
2
px
cosec
2
p
1
Lt
0
0
2
px
cot
x 1
Lt
x 1 x 1 2
= - = -
-
= ??
?
??
= ?
-
=
? ?
Since cosec 1
2
=
p
18. ??
?
??
= ?
-
? 0
0
x
1 cos2x
Lt
x 0
[Indeterminate form]
0
1
2 0
1
2sin2x
Lt
x 0
=
×
= =
?
19.
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 ? 0
2
2
2
2
2
2 ? 0
2
? 0 ? 0 n
m
n ?
4
1
4
m ?
Lt
2
n?
1
2
n?
sin
2
n?
2
m?
2
m?
2
m?
sin
Lt
2
n?
2sin
2
m?
2sin
Lt
1 cosr?
1 cosm?
Lt = × × × =
??
?
??
?
×
? ? ? ? ?
?
?
? ? ? ? ?
?
?
??
?
??
?
× ??
?
??
?
×
? ? ? ? ?
?
?
? ? ? ? ?
?
?
??
?
??
?
= =
-
-
? ? ? ?
20. ??
?
??
?
= - =
-
= ??
?
??
?
=
-
? ? b
a
loga logb log
1
a loga b logb
Lt
0
0
x
a b
Lt
x x
x 0
x x
x 0
21.
3
1
6
2
6
)
n
1
)(2
n
1
1(1
6n
n(n 1)(2n 1)
Lt
n
1 2 3 .... n
Lt
3 n 3
2 2 2 2
n
= =
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ + + +
?8 ?8
PROBLEMS ON RATE MEASURES
1. The side of an equilateral triangle is 2 cm. and increasing at the rate of 8 cm/hr.
Find the rate of increase of the area of the triangle?
A = side = 2 cm
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8
dt
da
= cm/hr.
Area of Equilateral triangle = ? = a2
4
3
2 8 8 3
2
3
dt
da
.2a
4
3
dt
d?
= = × × = cm2/hr
2. The area of a circular plate increases at the rate of 37.5 cm2/min. Find the rate of
change in the radius when the radius of the plate is 5 cm.
Area, A = pr2
dt
dr
2 r
dt
dA
= p [Given 37.5
dt
dA
= cm2/min, r = 5 cm]
37.5 =
dt
dr
2p × 5
p
37.5
10p
37.5
dt
dr
= = cm/min
3. If the rate of change of volume of a spherical ball is equal to the rate of change in
its radius, then find the radius of the spherical ball.
pr3
3
4
V = Given
dt
dr
dt
dv
=
dt
dr
p 3r
3
4
dt
dv 2 = ×
dt
dr
4p r
dt
dr 2 =
4pr2 = 1
2 p
1
r
4p
1
r2
=
=
4. An error of 0.02 cm is made while measuring the side of a cube. Find the
percentage error in measuring the surface area of the cube, when the side is 10 cm.
Let ‘a’ be a side of the cube
Surface area, S = 4a2
Given a = 10cm
S = 4 ×100 = 400 cm2
Consider S = 4a2
Taking log on both sides, we get
log S = log 4 + 2 log a
Taking differentials
a
da
2
S
dS
=
2 0.002 0.004
10
2 0.02
S
dS
= × =
×
=
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100
s
ds
× = percentage error in 5 = 0.004 × 100 = 0.4%
5. If there is an error of %
10
1
in measuring the radius of a spherical ball, then find
the percentage error in the calculated volume.
pr3
3
4
V =
p 3logr
3
4
log logV + ??
?
??
= ?
Taking differentials,
r
dr
dv 0 3
V
1
= + ×
0.3
10
3
10
1
100 3
r
dr
dv 100 3
V
1
= = × = ??
?
??
× = × ? ×
6. Find the slope of the tangent at (1, 6) to the curve 2x2 + 3y2 = 5
2x2 + 3y2 = 5
Differentiating w.r.t x, 0
dx
dy
4x + 6y =
3y
2x
dx
dy
4x
dx
dy
6y
-
=
= -
Slope = ??
?
??
?
dx
dy
at (1, 6) =
9
1
3 6
2 1
= -
×
×
-
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Calculus (6 Pages).doc
CALCULUS
(1) If y = f(x), x is called the independent variable and ‘y’ the dependent variable.
(2) Some important limits:
(i) 1
?
sin?
? 0
Lt =
?
(ii) cos? 1
? 0
Lt =
?
(iii) 1
?
tan?
Lt
? 0
=
?
(iv) m
?
sinm?
? 0
Lt =
?
(v) m
?
tanm?
? 0
Lt =
?
(vi) nan 1
x a
xn an
x a
Lt = -
-
-
?
(vii) Lt (1 h)h e
1
h 0
+ =
?
Where 2 < e < 3, e = 2.71 approximately
(viii) e
h
1
Lt 1
h
h
= ??
?
??
?
+
?8
(ix) 1
x
e 1
Lt
x
x 0
=
-
?
(x) log a
x
a 1
Lt e
x
x 0
=
-
?
(3) L’Hospital’s rule :If f(x) and f (x) are such that
f(a)
f(a)
is indeterminate i.e.takes
the form
0
0 or
8
8
, then
x a
Lt
-> f(x)
f(x)
=
x a
Lt
-> f' (x)
f' (x)
Derivatives of a function or differential coefficients of functions:
If y = f(x), the derivative of y w.r.t ‘x’ is defined as
d x
f(x d x) f(x)
Lt
dx
dy
dx 0
+ -
=
?
Derivatives of some standard functions:
y
dx
dy
y
dx
dy
xn nxn-1 Sec x Sec x tanx
x
1
x2
1
-
Cot x
-cosec2x
- 1 -
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x
2 x
1
Sin ax a cos ax
xn
1
xn 1
n
+ -
Tan ax
a sec2ax
ex ex ef(x) ef(x).f' (x)
ax
a loge a
x af(x) a .f (x).log a e
f(x) '
loge x
x
1
loge f(x)
f'(x)
f(x)
1
loga x
log e
x
1
a
loga f(x)
f'(x).log e
f(x)
1
a
Sin x Cos x Sin f(x) Cos f(x). f’(x)
Cos x - sin x Cos f(x) - sin f(x) f’(x)
Tan x Sec2x Tan f(x)
Cosec f(x)
Sec2f(x) f’(x)
-cosec 2 f(x)
cot f(x).f’(x)
Cosec x - cosec x cot x Sec f(x)
Cot f(x)
Sec f(x) tan f(x) f’(x)
-cosec2f(x).f’(x)
Problems on Limits:
Evaluate the following Limits:
1. 2
sin 2
2
sin x
2
Lt
cos x
2x
Lt
x 2 x 2
= -
p
-
=
-
=
- p
?p ?p
, using L’Hospital’s rule
2. 2
2
1
1
sin x
)
6
cos(x
Lt
0
0
cos x
2
3
)
6
sin(x
Lt
x 6 x 6
= =
p
-
= ??
?
??
= ?
-
p
-
?p ?p
, using L’Hospital’s rule
3. ??
?
?? =
? -
? 0
0
x
1 cos x
Lt
x 0 2
2
1
2
cos x
Lt
0
0
2x
sin x
Lt
x 0 x 0
= = ??
?
??
= = ?
? ?
, using L’Hospital’s rule.
4. 2
x
a b cos x
Lt
x 0 2
=
+
?
, find the value of ‘a’
- 2 -
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Calculus (6 Pages).doc
a b 0
0
a b
x
a b cos x
Lt
x 0 2
? + =
+
=
+
?
, since the given value of the limit = 2
2
b
x
sin x
2
b
Lt
2x
b sin x
Lt
x 0 x 0
- = ??
?
??
- ?
=
-
=
? ?
Since the original limit = 2; -b/2 = 2; b = -4
Since a + b = 0; a = 4
5.
2
1
2
n
1
1
Lt
2n
n 1
Lt
2n
n(n 1)
Lt
n
1 2 3 ... n
Lt
x 2 n 2 n n
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
+ + + +
?8 ?8 ?8 ?8
Since n ?8; 0
n
1
?
6. n.1 n
(1 x) 1
(1 x) 1
Lt
x
(1 x) 1
Lt n 1
n
(1 x) 1
n
x 0
= =
+ -
+ -
=
+ - -
? + ?
[use the result n 1
n n
x a
na
x a
x a
Lt -
?
=
-
-
]
7.
5
2
x
2
5
x
1
x
3
2
Lt
5x 2
2x 3x 1
Lt
2
2
2 x
2
x
=
-
+ +
=
-
+ +
?8 ?8
, since 0
x
1
0 and
x
1
2 ? ?
8. ??
?
??
?
=
-
- +
? 0
0
x 4
3 5 x
Lt
x 4
[Indeterminate form]
=
6
1
2 3
1
2 5 4
1
1
2 5 x
1
Lt
x 4
= -
×
= -
+
+ = -
-
?
[using L’Hospital’s rule]
9.
1 1 2
2
Lt 1 sin x 1 sin
(1 sin x)
(1 sin x)(1 sin x)
Lt
1 sin x
1 sin x
Lt
0
0
1 sin x
cos x
Lt
x 2 x 2
2
x 2
2
x 2
= + =
p
= + = +
-
+ -
=
-
-
= ??
?
??
?
=
?p - ?p ?p ?p
10. ??
?
??
= ?
? - 0
0
x 1
log x
Lt
x 1
[Indeterminate form].
1
1
11
1
x
1
Lt
x 1
= = =
? using L’Hospital’s Rule
11. 3 1 3 3
3x
e 1
Lt
x
e 1
Lt
3x
x 0
3x
x 0
× = × =
-
=
-
? ?
, using the formula 1
ax
e 1
Lt
ax
ax 0
=
-
?
12.
1
3
4
3
4 4
3
4
3
x 0
4
x 0
(108)
108
1
4 27
1
4.3
1
(3 )
1
4
1
(81 0)
1
4
1
1
(81 x)
4
1
Lt
0
0
x
81 x 3
Lt -
-
? ?
= =
×
= = =
+
=
+
= ??
?
??
= ?
+ -
- 3 -
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Calculus (6 Pages).doc
13.
?
?
=
??
-
? sin
Lt
x
sin x
Lt
0
1
x 0
where x = sin ?
= 1
14.
x
sin2x
f(x) = is continuous, find f(0)
??
?
??
= = ?
? 0
0
x
sin2x
f(0) Lt
x 0
[Indeterminate form]
2
1
2 cos 0
1
2 cos 2x
Lt
x 0
= = =
?
, Since cos 0 = 1 (Using L’Hospital’s rule)
15. ??
?
??
?
=
-
? 0
0
x
3 7
Lt
x x
x 0
[Indeterminate form]
= ??
?
??
?
= - =
-
? 7
3
log3 log7 log
1
3 log3 7 log7
Lt
x x
x 0
16. 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
4
p
sin
4
p
cos
1
cosx sinx
Lt
x p 4
sinx cosx
Lt
x p 4 x p 4
= + = + = =
+
=
-
-
=
? ?
17. - = × 8
?
0
2
px
Lt (x 1)tan
x 1
p
2
2
p
1
2
px
cosec
2
p
1
Lt
0
0
2
px
cot
x 1
Lt
x 1 x 1 2
= - = -
-
= ??
?
??
= ?
-
=
? ?
Since cosec 1
2
=
p
18. ??
?
??
= ?
-
? 0
0
x
1 cos2x
Lt
x 0
[Indeterminate form]
0
1
2 0
1
2sin2x
Lt
x 0
=
×
= =
?
19.
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 ? 0
2
2
2
2
2
2 ? 0
2
? 0 ? 0 n
m
n ?
4
1
4
m ?
Lt
2
n?
1
2
n?
sin
2
n?
2
m?
2
m?
2
m?
sin
Lt
2
n?
2sin
2
m?
2sin
Lt
1 cosr?
1 cosm?
Lt = × × × =
??
?
??
?
×
? ? ? ? ?
?
?
? ? ? ? ?
?
?
??
?
??
?
× ??
?
??
?
×
? ? ? ? ?
?
?
? ? ? ? ?
?
?
??
?
??
?
= =
-
-
? ? ? ?
20. ??
?
??
?
= - =
-
= ??
?
??
?
=
-
? ? b
a
loga logb log
1
a loga b logb
Lt
0
0
x
a b
Lt
x x
x 0
x x
x 0
21.
3
1
6
2
6
)
n
1
)(2
n
1
1(1
6n
n(n 1)(2n 1)
Lt
n
1 2 3 .... n
Lt
3 n 3
2 2 2 2
n
= =
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ + + +
?8 ?8
PROBLEMS ON RATE MEASURES
1. The side of an equilateral triangle is 2 cm. and increasing at the rate of 8 cm/hr.
Find the rate of increase of the area of the triangle?
A = side = 2 cm
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Calculus (6 Pages).doc
8
dt
da
= cm/hr.
Area of Equilateral triangle = ? = a2
4
3
2 8 8 3
2
3
dt
da
.2a
4
3
dt
d?
= = × × = cm2/hr
2. The area of a circular plate increases at the rate of 37.5 cm2/min. Find the rate of
change in the area when the radius of the plate is 5 cm.
Area, A = pr2
dt
dr
2 r
dt
dA
= p [Given 37.5
dt
dA
= cm2/min, r = 5 cm]
37.5 =
dt
dr
2p × 5
p
37.5
10p
37.5
dt
dr
= = cm/min
3. If the rate of change of volume of a spherical ball is equal to the rate of change in
its radius, then find the radius of the spherical ball.
pr3
3
4
V = Given
dt
dr
dt
dv
=
dt
dr
p 3r
3
4
dt
dv 2 = ×
dt
dr
4p r
dt
dr 2 =
4pr2 = 1
2 p
1
r
4p
1
r2
=
=
4. An error of 0.02 cm is made while measuring the side of a cube. Find the
percentage error in measuring the surface area of the cube, when the side is 10 cm.
Let ‘a’ be a side of the cube
Surface area, S = 4a2
Given a = 10cm
S = 4 ×100 = 400 cm2
Consider S = 4a2
Taking log on both sides, we get
log S = log 4 + 2 log a
Taking differentials
a
da
2
S
dS
=
2 0.002 0.004
10
2 0.02
S
dS
= × =
×
=
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Calculus (6 Pages).doc
100
s
ds
× = percentage error in 5 = 0.004 × 100 = 0.4%
5. If there is an error of %
10
1
in measuring the radius of a spherical ball, then find
the percentage error in the calculated volume.
pr3
3
4
V =
p 3logr
3
4
log logV + ??
?
??
= ?
Taking differentials,
r
dr
dv 0 3
V
1
= + ×
0.3
10
3
10
1
100 3
r
dr
dv 100 3
V
1
= = × = ??
?
??
× = × ? ×
6. Find the slope of the tangent at (1, 6) to the curve 2x2 + 3y2 = 5
2x2 + 3y2 = 5
Differentiating w.r.t x, 0
dx
dy
4x + 6y =
3y
2x
dx
dy
4x
dx
dy
6y
-
=
= -
Slope = ??
?
??
?
dx
dy
at (1, 6) =
9
1
3 6
2 1
= -
×
×
-
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STOCKS AND SHARES
STOCK:
The money borrowed by government or any reputed company from public at a fixed rate of
interest is called stock.
Example : Indira Vikas Patra
Kisan Vikas Patra
The amount invested by a person initially is called Face Value of the stock. Usually a period
is prescribed for the repayment of the loan. When stock is purchased, brokerage is added to
the cost price.
When stock is sold, brokerage is subtracted from the
selling price. The selling price of Rs.100 stock is said to be at par, above par and below
Par according as the selling price of the stock is Rs.100 exactly, more than Rs.100 or below
Rs.100 respectively.
Note:
“ Rs.800, 6% of stock at Rs.95” implies
Total holding of stock =Rs.800
Face value of stock = Rs.100
Market value = Rs.97
Interest per annum = 6%
Examples:
1.What amount is received to the purchase Rs.1600, 8
2
1
% stock at Rs. 105. (Brokerage =
2
1
%)
Solution:
To purchase Rs.100 stock, we need 105+
2
211
Rs.
2
1
=
Purchase of Rs.1600 stock
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=Rs Rs.1688
2 100
211 1600
= ??
?
??
?
×
×
2. Find the cash realized by selling Rs.2400, 5 %
2
1
stock at 5 premium (Brokerage= %
4
1
)
Solution:
Rs.100+5 = Rs.105 is the market value
Cash realized for Rs.100 stock = 105-
4
1
=
4
419
Cash Received on selling Rs.2400 Stock =
4 100
419 2400
×
×
= Rs.2514
3. Find the better investment of 5
2
1
% stock at Rs.102 and 4 %
4
3
stock at Rs.96
Solution
%
2
1
5 at Rs.102 gives an income of Rs.
2
11 × .
102
1 × 100 or 5.39% of investment.
4 %
4
3
at Rs.96 gives an income of Rs.
4
19 ×
96
1 × 100% or 4.9% of investment
?The first is the better.
4. What should be the investment in 6 %
3
2
stock at Rs.10 premium to secure an annual
income of Rs.600?
Solution:
For Rs.110 investment income is
3
20
For Rs.600 investment income is Rs.9900
20
110 3 600
=
× ×
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5.A man sells Rs.5000, 4 %
2
1
stock at Rs.144 and invests the proceeds partly in 3% stock
at 90 and the remains in 4% stock at 108.If his income increases by Rs.25 ,how much
money is invested in each stock?
Solution:
Selling price of the stock = 5000 7200
100
144
× =
3% at 90: 4% at 108 = 5: 3
Investment in 3% stock = 7200 Rs.4500
8
5
× =
Investment in 4% stock = 7200-4500 = Rs.2700
SHARE:
1.Find the cost of 96 shares of Rs.10 at Rs.
4
3
discount and Rs.
4
1
brokerage per share.
Solution :
Cost of 1 share = Rs.
2
19
4
1
4
3
10 = ??
?
??
? - +
?Cost of 96 shares = Rs.912
2. Find the rate of income derived from 40 shares of Rs.25 each at Rs.5 premium
(Brokerage ¼ per share), the rate of dividend being 5%.
Solution :
Cost of 1 share = Rs.
4
121
4
1
25 + 5 + =
Cost of 40 shares =Rs.1210= Investment
Face value of 40 shares = 40×25=Rs.1000
Dividend on Rs.100 =Rs. 5
Dividend on Rs.1100 = Rs.55
Income on investment of Rs.1210 is Rs.55
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Rate of income = 100 5%
1100
55
× =
3. What is the market value of a 4% stock which yields 6 %
3
1
after paying an income tax of
5%?
Solution:
Tax on Rs.4 at 5% = 0.20
Net income = Rs.3.80
For Rs.
3
1
6 income, investment is = Rs.100
For 3.80 income, investment is 3.80
19
3
100 × × = Rs.60
4.A Corporation declares a half yearly dividend of 6%. X possess 350 shares whose face
value is Rs.80.How much dividend does he receive per year?
Solution:
Face value of 350 shares = 350×80=28000
Dividend = Rs.3360
100
28000 12
=
×
5. A person invests Rs.589500 in 3% stock at Rs.62
2
1
and sells out when the price rises to
Rs. 66
2
1
. He invests the amount in 5% stock at Rs.105.What is the change in his income?
Solution:
Rs.100 share is purchased at Rs.
2
125
.
For Rs.589500, the worth of stock purchased= 589500
125
2
100 × × =Rs.943200
Income for Rs.100=Rs.
4
265
Income for Rs.943200 is 265 2358
4
265
100
943200
× = ×
Stock purchase for Rs.624870 is 265 2358
106
100
× × =Rs.589500
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Income on first stock =
100
3 × 943200
=Rs.28296
Income on second stock =
100
5 × 589500
=Rs.29475
?Change in income =Rs.29475-28296=Rs.1179
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PARTNERSHIP
Partnership: If more than two persons venture into a business, then it is called
Partnership.
When capitals of all the partners are invested for the same period, then the gain or
loss is divided among the partners in the ratio of investments.
If P, Q, R rupees are the investments of three partners A, B, C for the same period.
Profit of A = Profit × P / (P + Q + R)
Profit of B = Profit × Q / (P + Q + R)
Profit of C = Profit × R / (P + Q + R)
The above is known as simple partnership.
When capitals of the partners are invested in different periods, then the profit
is divided in the ratio of the products of time and capital.
Let Rs P, Q, R be the investments of three partners A, B, C the periods being
12 months, 8 months and 7months (Here the second partner joins after 4 months
with Rs. Q and the third after 5 months with Rs. R.
Ratio of capitals = P × 12 : Q × 8 : R : 7 = r : s : t
Profit of A =
(r s t)
r
P 12
+ +
× ×
Profit of B =
(r s t)
s
Q 8
+ +
× ×
Profit of C =
(r s t)
t
R 7
+ +
× ×
This is called compound partnership
Let us consider the following example
Partner Capital Period (Months)
A
B
C
P
Q
Q – Q’
R
12
7
5
8
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Ratio of capitals = (P × 12) : (Q × 7 + (Q – Q’) × 5) : R × B
= r : s : t (say)
Profit of A = (P × 12) ×
(r s t)
r
+ +
etc.
EXAMPLES:
1. Three partners A, B and C start a business with Rs. 35000, Rs.40000, Rs.30000.
If the net profit after an year is 21,000, what is the profit of B?
Ratio of Capitals = 7: 8: 6
Sum = 21
Profit of B = 21000
21
8
× = Rs.8000
2. A and B jointly invest Rs.9000 and Rs.10500. After 4 months C joins with
Rs.12500 and B withdraws Rs.2000. At the end of the year, the profit was
Rs.4770. Find the share of each.
Ratio of capitals = (9000 × 12): (10500 × 4 + 8500 × 8): (12500 × 8)
= 54: 55: 50
Sum = 159
Profit of A = 1620
159
54
4770 × = etc.
3. A and B enter into a partnership with capitals in the ratio 4 : 5. After three
months, A withdraws
4
1 and B withdraws
5
1
of their capital. The profit was
Rs.76000 at the end of 10 months. Find their shares of profit.
Money withdrawn by A after three months =
4
1
4 × = Rs.1
Money withdrawn by B in the same month =
5
1
5 × = Rs.1
A invested Rs.4 for three months and Rs.3 for 7 months
B invested Rs.5 for three months and Rs.4 for 7 months.
Ratio of their capitals = (4 × 3 + 3× 7) : (5 × 3 + 4 × 7)
= 33 : 43; Sum = 76
A’s share =
76
33
76000 × = Rs.33000
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B’s share =
76
43
76000 × = Rs.43000
4. The ratio of investments of two partners A and B is 11: 12 and the ratio of their
profits is 2: 3. If A invested his capital for 8 months, for what period B invested?
Let A invest Rs.11 for 8 months
Let B invest Rs.12 for x months
Capital ratios = 88: 12x
3
2
12x
88
=
x = 11
5. A, B and C are three partners in a business. If A’s capital is twice that of B and
B’s capital is thrice that of C, find the ratio of their profits.
Let C’s capital = x
Profit ratio = 6: 3: 1
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AVERAGE
Number of quantities
Sumof allquantities
Average =
EXAMPLES:
1. The average age of 30 kids is 9 years. If the teacher’s age is included, the
average age becomes 10 years. What is the teacher’s age?
Total age of 30 children = 30 × 9 = 270 yrs.
Average age of 30 children and 1 teacher = 10 yrs
Total of their ages = 31 × 10 = 310 yrs
Teacher’s age = 310 – 270 = 40
2. The average of 6 numbers is 8. What is the 7th number, so that the average
becomes 10?
Let x be the 7th number
Total of 6 numbers = 6 × 8 = 48
We are given that = 10
7
48 x
=
+
x = 22
3. Five years ago, the average of Raja and Rani’s ages was 20 yrs. Now the average
age of Raja, Rani and Rama is 30 yrs. What will be Rama’s age 10 yrs hence?
Total age of Raja and Rani 5 years age = 40
Total age of Raja and Rani now = 40 + 5 + 5 = 50
Total age of Raja, Rani and Rama now = 90
Rama’s age now = 90 – 50 = 40
Rama’s age after 10 years = 50
4. Out of three numbers, the first is twice the second and thrice the third. If their
average is 88, find the numbers.
Third number = x (say)
First number = 3x
Second number =
2
3x
Total =
2
3x
x + 3x +
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Average = ) 88
2
3
(1 3
3
x
+ + = (given)
i.e., 88
2
11
3
x
× =
x = 48
48, 144, 72 are the numbers.
5. The average of 8 numbers is 21. Find the average of new set of numbers when 8
multiply every number.
Total of 8 numbers = 168
Total of new 8 numbers = 168 × 8 = 1344
Average of new set = 168
8
1344
=
6. The average of 30 innings of a batsman is 20 and other 20 innings is 30. What is
the average of all the innings?
Total of 50 innings = (30 × 20 + 20 × 30) = 1200
Average = 24
50
1200
=
Average Speed:
If an object covers equal distances at x km/hr and y km/hr, then
Average Speed =
x y
2xy
+
In another way,
Average speed =
Totaltime
Distance
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EXAMPLES:
1. A cyclist travels to reach a post at a speed of 15 km/hr and returns back at the
rate of 10km/hr. What is the average speed of the cyclist?
Average Speed =
25
2 × 15 × 10
= 12 km/hr.
2. With an average speed of 40 km/hr, a train reaches its destination in time. If it
goes with an average speed of 35 km/hr, it is late by 15 minutes. What is the
total distance?
Let x be the total distance
4
1
40
x
35
x
- =
x = 70 km
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Line chart
Besides the effort and facility in reading graphical data, there is substantially no
difference between this and the tabular modes of presentation. The numerical skills
count just as much, and they are important because within half a minute one has to
produce the answer, which can line up with one of the response choices well, after
analyzing the data and scrutinizing the graph.
Questions are based on graphs like to ones below:
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1970 1972 1973 1975 1978 1980
25
75
125
175
1970 1972 1974 1975 1978 1980
Cans were made for baby cereals from 1970 to 1980 only in aluminum or steel,
identical in shape, size and styling. The actual number of cans9 in lakhs) is shown in
the 2 graphs based on these graphs. Answer questions 1 to 3.
Q.1:
In 1975 approximately how much % more cans were made in steel than in
aluminum?
(a) 100 (b) 200 (c) 50 (d) 156 (e) 226
Solution:
In the first graph, notice that the vertical line through 1975 cuts the
graph at a point. Draw a line in pencil (or use a straight edge of a sheet of paper)
parallel to the “year” axis to cut the vertical axis. This marks a point, which may be
approximated to 45 (lakh numbers). A similar exercise on the other graph brings up
the figure of approximately 100. This signifies that the number of aluminum cans
used in 1975 was 45 lakhs, against 100 lakhs of steel cans.
? excess of steel can over aluminum 100-45 = 55 lakhs comparing this excess in a
ratio with the lower figure, viz. no. of aluminum cans, we get the figures: 55/45 = 1
5/9.
This represents 155 5/9% (c)
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Q.2:
In which of the following year was half the total number of cans used made of
steel?
(a) 1972 (b) 1974 (c) 1976 (d) 1978 (e) None of these
Solution:
When half of the total numbers of cans used were of steel, both steel and
aluminum must have been used in equal numbers. The most time-effective approach
here is to try out each of the choices for checking whether the figures for aluminum
and steel are reasonably close.
1972: Aluminum: 52 to 53; steel 54 to 55
(These are reasonably equal)
1974: Aluminum 60; steel: 100 (wide apart)
1978:Obviously not suited because use of aluminum has decreased from previous
years and of steel increased. ?The correct response is (a)
Q.3:
Aluminum cost 10 times as much as steel (by weight) in 1975; and steel is 6
times heavier than aluminum.
In 1975, approximately what % of the cost of steel cans used did aluminum
cans cost?
(a) 75 (b) 64 (c) 42 (d) 60 (e) cannot be found for want of data
Solution:
Cost of aluminum cans used in 1975
=no. of cans used ×wt. of each can ×price of aluminum in Rs. / unit wt.
=45×105 ×w×p
Similarly cost of steel cans used in 1975
= 100 x 105 x7 w xp/10
(Note: Steel is 6 times heavier than aluminum, and therefore 7 times as
aluminum. That accounts for the figure 7 w)
? The required figure =
70
45
10
p
100 10 7 w
45 10 w p
5
5
=
× × ×
× × ×
= 64.42%(b)
Band Chart
Whenever we wish to get, at a glance, an idea of not only how changes in a
particular quantity (function) are influenced by changes in another quantity (the
independent variable) but also how the independent variable affects 2 or more other
dependent functions, we use the band chart. The band chart is a “cumulative “
graph. Although it is more informative than the line graph or a number of super
imposed line graphs, it can lead to confusing results if certain of its basic features
are not remembered. Study of an example facilitates easier explanation.
Let us take the band diagram below to answer questions 4 to 6, which
represents the business of a business group in its four regional divisions, west,
north, east and south in terms of Crores of rupees of turnover from 1992 to 1997.
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Band Diagram
40
45
53
60 58 60 60
65 65
70 70
75
80
75
70
80
85 85
86
90
95 98 100
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
year
Southern Zone Eastern Zone
Northern Zone Western Zone
P
Note:
1. A band chart is recognised as distinct from a set of line graphs by the presence of
one or more of the following features: -
a. At the top of the diagram, there will be an indication to say it is a band diagram.
b. The text of the data will declare somewhere that it is a band diagram.
c. The parameter (viz., the context to which each group of y against x is related) is
marked below the connected line and not along it- as in a conventional graph.
Here y is turnover, x is year and the parameter is the ‘zone’.
2. The figure indicated on any line refers to the total value of y (against the
corresponding value of x) for all the parameters named below that line.
Example:
Take a point marked P on the graph. The Y value of P is Rs.70 crores and the
x value is 1994. The parameters marked below the line on which point P is seen are
Northern, Western and Southern zones, i.e.- the interpretation is thus:
The combined turnover of the Southern, Eastern and Northern zones in 1994 was Rs.
70 crores.
3. To find the value of Y for a particular, parameter and a given x, note the value of
Y for that x, for the lines immediately above and immediately below the given line.
The difference of the two values gives the required result. Alternatively you can get
this by directly counting or measuring this difference in the graph.
Q.1:
Which of the regions showed the maximum average annual growth rate in the
period 1992 to 1997, and by what %.
(a) Southern zone 60 crores (b) Western zone Rs.100 crores
(c) Southern zone 10% (d) Northern zone, 14%
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Solution: Average Annual Growth Rate
Annual Growth Rate =(amount of increase from 1992 to ’97)/
5
turnover in 1992
(There are 5 annual intervals or periods between 1992 and 1997) since the question
relates to the maximum” values of this, note from the graph (which can be seen
drawn approximately to scale, in both x and y axes) that the southern zone has the
largest increase
(1997 figure – 1992 figure) = 60-40 =20 crores compared to 1992 (Rs.20
crores) this a 100% increase. As this has happened in a five period, the average
annual growth rate =( )
5
2
1
5
60 - 40 ÷40 =
½ in five years, or 50% in 5 years i.e. 10% per year.
Q.2.
If it can be assumed that every zone showed a turnover within one year of its
beginning to function in which year did the western zone commence work?
(a) 1992 (b) 1993 (c) 1994 (d) 1996
Solution:
From the figure it is evident that the turnover that the western zone in 1992
was nil. (In 1992 value of “western zone line” is equal to 80; value of northern zone
line just below it = 80
? Western zone turnover = 80 – 80 = 0
Q.3:
What was the largest % of increase in turnover that the western zone
perceives in a 2 successive period, in these years?
(a) 40 (b) 30 (c) 20 (d) 10
Solution:
In 1992 “west” turnover = 0. The space between the top line and the next
one below it, in the graph, represent the turnover of the western zone. This space is
widest in 1994, and measures 90-70 = 20=Rs. Cr.). Thus the Increase from 1992 is
Rs. 20 crores in 2 years or Rs. 10. crores per annum. This is the maximum %
increase.
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Bar chart
The x – axis shows a variable and the y-axis a function of it. The variable
could be companies of different identities and the function could be the turnover of
each, as below: -
Turn-over in Rupees Hundred Lakhs in
a certain year.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
A B C D E
Names of Companies
Consider the following questions 2 to 5 based on the above data.
Q.1. What % of the average turnover of all the five Co’s, A to E, is that of C alone?
(a) 40 (b) 72 (c) 86 (d) 90
Solution:
• Average turnover =
5
80 +100 +60 +70 + 40
= 70(Rs.lakhs)
• Individual turnover of Co. C = 60 (Rs.lakhs)
• ?C is 60/70 of the average i.e. 6/7
• 6/7 = 85 5/7% (c)
Q.2: If the turnover of company C were to increase 10% every year, which of the
following figures is closest to its turnover at the end of 3 years from the year shown
in the chart?
(a) Rs. 79.86 crore (b) 0.80 crore (c) Rs.80 lakhs (d) Rs.78 lakhs
Solution:
Present turnover c 60 (Rs.lakhs)
Add 10% 6
Projected turnover at the end of one year from now 66
Add 10% 6.6
Projected turnover at the end of two year from now 72.6
Add 10% 7.26
Projected turnover at the end of 3 year from now 79.86. ………(c)
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An alternative approach:
As there is a rises in the turnover of 10% every year, we may say, every year’s
turnover is 110% of the previous year’s, i.e. 1.1 times the previous year’s, and
hence in 3 full year’s turnover will be (1.1) 3 times the present year’s turnover.
(1.1) 3 = (1+0.1) 3 =1 + 3 x 0.1 + ( ) (.001
31
3 2 1
0.01
21
3 × 2 × × ) (by binomial expansion)
= 1.3+ 0.03 + 0.001 = 1.331
Thus the 3 rd year’s turnover will be 1.331 times now
= 1.331 x 60 (Rs. lakhs)
= Rs.79.86 lakhs
Note: (1) The exact result above is closest to (c) as can seen by comparison
The true answer in Rs. lakhs Individual answers (Rs.)
?
79.864
79.86 cr. = 7, 986 lakhs
0.80 cr. = 800 lakhs
= 80 lakhs
= 78 lakhs
(2) The answer (d) would be correct if the data has been “If the turnover of Co. C
were to increase by an average of 10% every year …..”
The student must note that this is a case of simple rate of increase, when the same
sum is added every year, whereas the actual problem expresses a compound rate of
increase, where the rate of increase every year is the same. In other words the
actual problem is one where geometric progression applies, with a mean ratio of 1.1
(corresponding to 10% increase) and the revised problem is one of arithmetic
progression with a common difference of 0.1(of the present turnover every year)
i.e.1.3 times in 3 years and ?works out to 1.3 x 60 =78
Q.3: If Co. E improves its turnover by 10% on an average every year and Co. B
suffers a decrease at a 10% average every year, in how many years from now will C
begin to be ahead of B in turnover?
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5
Solution: Present turnover of B = Rs.100 lakhs
Present turnover of E = Rs.40 lakhs
Gap in turnover
Between B & E = Rs. 60 lakhs
Annual average drop in B’s
turnover = 10% of 100 = Rs. 10 lakhs
Annual average increase in E’s
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turnover = 10% of 40 = Rs. 4 lakhs
Thus the total or net effective change in the turnovers of B and E = 10 + 4 =
Rs. 14 lakhs every year.
?To bridge the gap of Rs. 60 lakhs between them it will take exactly
7
4 2
14
60 = years
(d)
Note: 4
7
2 is arithmetically closer to 4 than to 5
It would, however, be incorrect to mark (C) as your response, because in 4 years,
the turnover of E will not surpass that of B. Company turnover are taken only on a
yearly basis. Hence, you have to mark only that year as your response, in which this
would have happened; that is 5, and not 4.
Q.4: If in the year to which the bar chart relates, Co. A produced 20% fewer units of
the same product X than Co. B and no other products were made by Co. B either,
compare the units price of product X charged by company A had company B, in a
ratio.
(a) 1:1 (b) 10:11 (c) 11:12 (d) 6:5
Solution: unit price =
Totalvolumeof sale
Totalvalueof sale
( )
( )
1 i.e.1:1 (a)
80
100
100
80
100lakhs / 100%ofB'svolumeof sale
80lakhs / 80%ofB'svolumeof sale
B'sturnover/B'svolumeof sale
A'sturnover/A'svolumeof sale
Unitpriceof xinB
Unitpriceof xinA
= × =
=
? =
Shorter Approach:
Form the chart it is seen A’s turnover = 80% of B’s
By the terms of this question, A’s sale = 80% of B’s
? Obviously A and B must be selling the product at the same price.
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The Pie Diagram
In this representation, the values of different quantities are expressed in
relation to a certain standard value. For example, when we are on percentage, we
can understand that 25% would represent 30 tonnes, if 100% is given to correspond
to 120 tonnes. In the pie diagram, we visualize all quantities to be contained within a
circle, with each quantity depicted in sectors of varying degrees and 360° standing
for the reference. Thus in this case 25% would be shown as 25% of 360° (full circle)
= 90°(when the total is 120 tonnes, i.e., 360° =120 tonnes, 90° would stand for 30
tonnes). Obviously, the sum of all the degrees in the various sectors representing
the various quantities must keep within 360° just as, in percentage representation,
the sum of all 'percents’ must not exceed 100.
In working out problems in Pie Charts, it will be found convenient to mark, on the
question paper itself, both degrees and value (in magnitude and unit) of the
individual items making up the total.
A few examples will clear these points.
Heavy
Industry
House
Agriculture Building
Transport
Industry
Educational
Institutions
Small Scal
Industry
A financial institution issues loans to 6 different activities.
The amounts advanced to Educational Institutions and Transport industry are the
same.
15% of the total loan amount goes to Agriculture, and an amount of Rs. 543.60
crores is set aside for small-scale industries.
Based on these figures and on the data evident from the pie chart above answer
questions 1 to 3 below: -
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Q1:
If 3 educational institutions received their loans in the ratio 1:2:5,
approximately how many Crores of rupees was the largest allotment for an individual
educational institution?
(a) 164 (b) 68 (c) 102 (d) 272
Q2:
If the Heavy Industry loan were cut by 20% and the amount thus cut were to
be divided equally between Agriculture and SSI (small scale industry) what would be
the ratio of the fresh allotments to Agriculture and SSI?
(a) 20:23 (b) 17:12 (c) 40:37 (d) 1:1
Q3:
Assume that only 80% of the loan to SSI, 60% of the loan to Agriculture and
40% of loan to Transport are recovered at a certain point of time and 100% of the
loan is recovered from the other sectors. How many Crores of rupees of the total
amount lent is yet to be realized at this stage?
(a) 2283.12 (b) 1359.27 (c) 434.88 (d) None of these
Solutions:
`In almost all problems of DI with pie charts, where 3 or more questions are
asked based on the same data, you will find it worthwhile first to mark all the ‘blank’
sectors in the pie chart with proper figures of angular degrees and/ or rupees with
the help of the data. Note that this marking is best done on the diagram in the
question paper itself.
Percent Proportion Angle(Degrees) Amount in crores
1 Agriculture 15% * 54° 407.7
2 Small Scale Industry 20% 72° 543.6 *
3 Heavy Industry 20% 72° * 543.6
4 House Building 25% 90°* 679.25
5 Educational Institutions 10% * 288° 271.8
6 Transport Industry 10% * 72° 271.8
Note: * denotes that the data is given in so many words or indicated in the drawing.
Q.1:
The ratio of loans being 1:2:5, the largest institution has a share of 5/1+2+5
or 5/8 of 10% of Rs.2718 crores = 163.625 rounded off to 164. (a)
Q.2:
a. Heavy industry gets 72° or 20% (you can also verify this in the fully
marked diagram you would have made)
b. 20% of this 20% is 4%
c. Agriculture gets half of this, i.e.2%, and becomes 15+2 = 17%
d. SSI receives the other half, and becomes 10+2 =12%
? The required ratio is 17:12 (b)
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Q.3:
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Mixed Charts and Miscellaneous types
Triangular form
This is suitable for a comparison among three functions of a variable for
different parameters. For example, if we wish to compare the production of different
ores (any number) of 3 different countries; or the distribution of (any number of
colleges) in terms of 3 disciplines; or the percentage of total votes obtained (in any
number of constituencies) by 3 candidates – in all such cases, the triangular form is
one more mode of representation. However, this system as compared with the other
patterns, discussed so far, is of dubious merit, which is perhaps one reason why it is
not seen in practical contexts. As examples, consider the data and diagram below, on
which que stions 16 and 17 are b ased:
A
75% 25%
C
A
50% 50%
P Q
25% R S
75%
Data:
1. 3 stores A, B, C each stock 5 items P, Q, R, S, T.
2. The percentage of the total stock values, for each of the stores and allotted to
each of the five items is depicted in the triangular chart above.
3. The total value of stocks in A, B, C are respectively Rs. 1.2 lakhs, Rs. 90,000 and
Rs. 2,5 lakhs (for items P, Q,R, S,T together)
Q.1: If the total value of stocks held by stores A, B, C are Rs. 1.2 lakhs, Rs. 90,000
and Rs. 2,5 lakhs exclusively for these 5 items, viz., PQRST, what is the total value
of stocks of Q held by all 3 stores A, B, C?
(a) Rs. 3.6 lakhs (b) 1.812 lakhs (c) Rs. 90,000
(d) Cannot be found from the data (e) none of these
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Note:
It is very easy to get confused while working on this type. The following
points will help you to think rationally.
1. In a line drawing, the bottom horizontal line represents the independent
variable, and perpendicular distances from it, the corresponding values of the
independent variable.
2. Likewise, if you consider each store separately the bottom line opposite to a
vertex, represents the independent variable relating to it. Thus in the given
example, for store A, the line BC denoted the different products PQRST.
3. The vertical distance of each of these will indicate the value of the
corresponding function for that product. Thus vertical measurements of P
from base line BC are marked off as 50% on the left side, i.e. the stock of P in
store A is 50% of the total stock. Similarly. Continuing with the same
(parameter) product P occupies 25% of the stock in store C (base line AB,
measurements perpendicular to line AB); likewise P takes up 25% of the
value of stock in store B.
Solution to Q.1:
The product in question is Q and we are to establish the total value of
the stock of Q held in three stores. For these, We find out the value of the stock of Q
in store A, B, C individually, For each store, the proportion of the total stock which is
composed of item Q is to be found from the triangular chart; you have to exclude the
stores B and C from your attention when you are looking for A; and similarly, for
each of the other two.
The diagram below helps to identify Fig 1. thFei gp.r 2o po rtion o f stock of A allFoitgte 3d. to Q(fig.1)
A
75% )
4
(3 25%
Similarly the position of Q as relevant to stores B and C is shown in figures 2 and3.
)
4
(1
50% ( ½ ) 8
3 Q)
8
(1 50%
( ½ )
25% (¼) Q
75% (3) B 75% 50% 25%
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From these we can evaluate the stock of Q in A, B, and C individually.
Stock of Q
Store Proportion of total Total value of stock
in rupees thousand
value of stock of Q
alone in rupees
thousand
A 3/8 120 45
B 1/8 90 11.25
C 1/2 250 125
181.25
Thus the total value of product Q in the 3 stores A, B, C put together is Rs. 181.250
thousand or Rs. 1,8125 lakhs.
Q.2 What are the differences in value of the stock of product R in store B and that
of product S in store C?
(a) Rs.3 lakhs (b) Rs.65, 000 (c) Rs.1.28 lakhs (d) Rs. 37,500 (e) None of these
Solution:
1. Share of R in B = 5/8: (see diagram L below)
Total stock in B = 90(Rs. in thousand)
(For P, Q, R, S,T)
? Value of R in B = 56.25 (Rs. In thousand)
2. Share of S in C = 3/8 (see diagram R below)
Total stock In C = 250 (Rs. In thousand)
? Value Of s in C = 3/8 x 250 =93.75 (Rs. in thousand)
?Required difference = 93.75 –56.25
= Rs. 3 7,500( d)
25% (¼)
8
3
8
5 50% (½)
S
R
75% 50% 25%
C
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Note that the presentation of data is always mixed. Here diagrammatic or visual data
are not enough. In this case, for instance, besides the equilateral triangle (which is
the core of the data) you have the details marked 1 & 2, which are needed to tell us
what A, B, C; P,Q, R,S & T stand for. These are not visual, but worded data. However
in a much as we cannot do without this much of written matter, we cannot consider
1 & 2 to be contributing to mixing presentation. You will notice this degree of worded
However, in this set, data 3 is truly mixing worded data with visual.data 3 is
data in the band, pie, line and bar presentation discussed do far.
core data. It is not data given just to explain significances (such as A, B, C, P, Q, R,
S, T). It adds to given data, with which alone you can answer the questions.
Mixing can be done with different compositions. For example, data 3 is here
presented in “statement” form. It could have been in any other form like Bar, Pie,
Band-bar etc., as in the presentation below:
Alternative Presentations of Data 3
0.8
2
6
2
A B C
STORE
1.
1.
2.4
0.90
2.10
2.05
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
1
Stock value in Rs.lakhs
A B C
PIE
B A
71° 94° 100%
=
360° =
Rs.4.601 lakhs
C
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